Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
Tip: To keep track of most cited articles…

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

You can always keep track of the Most Cited Journal Articles on PEP Web by checking the PEP Section found on the homepage.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Angel, K. (1967). On Symbiosis and Pseudosymbiosis. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 15:294-316.

(1967). Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 15:294-316

On Symbiosis and Pseudosymbiosis

Klaus Angel, M.D.


Three cases are presented who appear to have "symbiotic relationships" manifested by merging fantasies and extreme dependence. An attempt is made to demonstrate:

1. In symbiosis, merging fantasies are a true reflection of the state of the ego: the self and object representations are merged.

2. In pseudosymbiosis, merging fantasies are defensive formations, and the self and object representations are more or less distinct.

3. In adults with true symbiotic object relationships, the scale is weighted heavily on the side of fixation to the infantile symbiotic phase. In pseudosymbiosis, the element of fixation is minimal or absent, and the scale is weighted heavily on the side of defensive regression.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2020, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.