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Pine, F. (1988). The Four Psychologies of Psychoanalysis and their Place in Clinical Work. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 36:571-596.

(1988). Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 36:571-596

The Four Psychologies of Psychoanalysis and their Place in Clinical Work

Fred Pine, Ph.D.


Clinical psychoanalysis has led to the development of four conceptually separable perspectives on the functioning of the human mind. These are referred to herein as the psychologies of drive, ego, object relations, and self. Their clinical relevance is explored by applying them to issues regarding evenly hovering attention and the mutative factors in psychoanalysis. Those two areas, in turn, are seen to undergo an expansion when viewed from the perspective of each of the four psychologies.

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