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Tip: To review the bibliography…

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It is always useful to review an article’s bibliography and references to get a deeper understanding of the psychoanalytic concepts and theoretical framework in it.

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Jaffe, D.S. (1991). Beyond the What, When, and How of Transference: A Consideration of the Why. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 39:491-512.

(1991). Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 39:491-512

Beyond the What, When, and How of Transference: A Consideration of the Why

Daniel S. Jaffe, M.D.


Transference has generally been discussed in terms of its operating to distort the way in which a current relationship is dealt with and experienced because of one's past. In the present paper, emphasis is placed on that aspect of transference which operates as a defense, and which is called into play in response to signal anxiety associated with a "pathogenic complex" and is based on (1) a traumatic experience of stimulus overload or (2) an intrapsychic conflict stemming from instinctual drive pressure which in turn threatens a repetition of the traumatic experience. Clinical illustrations are presented in which both traumatic experience and drive-conflict forces are prominent, leading to a discussion of the here-and-now versus reconstruction of the past, as well as affective/cognitive and interpersonal/intrapsychic factors.

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