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Kernberg, O.F. (1991). The Psychopathology Of Hatred. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 39S(Supplement):209-238.

(1991). Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 39S(Supplement):209-238

The Psychopathology Of Hatred

Otto F. Kernberg, M.D.

The basic affect state characterizing the activation of aggression is that of rage. Hatred is a derived, complex, aggressive affect characterized by a chronic, stable, characterologically anchored, internalized object relation involving the self and a desperately needed and yet dreaded, persecutory object.

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