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Tip: To review the bibliography…

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It is always useful to review an article’s bibliography and references to get a deeper understanding of the psychoanalytic concepts and theoretical framework in it.

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Auchincloss, E.L. Weiss, R.W. (1992). Paranoid Character and the Intolerance of Indifference. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 40:1013-1037.

(1992). Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 40:1013-1037

Paranoid Character and the Intolerance of Indifference

Elizabeth L. Auchincloss, M.D. and Richard W. Weiss, M.D.


This paper suggests that aspects of paranoid character are structured around fantasies of magical and concrete connectedness to objects; these fantasies serve to avoid the terrors of object inconstancy. The authors describe how these fantasies are expressed in the psychoanalytic situation and explore their relation to common paranoid phenomena. The paranoid person must maintain these fantasies of connectedness at all cost or risk experiencing unbearable indifference between self and object. Paradoxically, the sacrifice of self and object boundaries inherent in these fantasies makes object constancy even more difficult to achieve because of the secondary defensive use of anger mobilized to protect the boundaries of the self.

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