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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Abend, S.M. (1993). An Inquiry Into the Fate of the Transference in Psychoanalysis. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 41:627-651.

(1993). Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 41:627-651

An Inquiry Into the Fate of the Transference in Psychoanalysis

Sander M. Abend, M.D.


Despite universal agreement about the importance of transference, there is no single, comprehensive, generally accepted explanation for the place transference occupies in clinical psychoanalytic theory. In this presentation, I trace the origins of some major trends prominent in theoretical controversy to their antecedents. Some seminal contributions which introduced important issues into the evolving theory of transference are highlighted; this is followed by a brief outline of the ideas of a representative sample of current theorists. This comparison of the appearance of fundamental evolutionary modifications of transference theory with present-day differences in theoretical emphasis leads to the identification of four persistent themes: (1) the nature of the influence of the patient's relationship with the analyst in the analytic experience, (2) how to account for the analyst's subjectivity and its role in the analytic process, (3) what weight to assign to the interpersonal dimension of the transference, and (4) differences among theoretical perspectives as reflected in the precise content of transference interpretations. Difficulties in the path of comparative evaluation of differences in theoretical accounts of the transference and its handling are noted. A few reasons for my adherence to the theory I prefer are mentioned solely for the purpose of underlining areas of controversy that require serious attention and further clarification.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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