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PEP-Easy Tip: To save PEP-Easy to the home screen

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

To start PEP-Easy without first opening your browser–just as you would start a mobile app, you can save a shortcut to your home screen.

First, in Chrome or Safari, depending on your platform, open PEP-Easy from You want to be on the default start screen, so you have a clean workspace.

Then, depending on your mobile device…follow the instructions below:


  1. Tap on the share icon Action navigation bar and tab bar icon
  2. In the bottom list, tap on ‘Add to home screen’
  3. In the “Add to Home” confirmation “bubble”, tap “Add”

On Android:

  1. Tap on the Chrome menu (Vertical Ellipses)
  2. Select “Add to Home Screen” from the menu


For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Maniadakis, G. (2017). On the opening and closing of possible worlds. Int. Forum Psychoanal., 26(2):73-74.

(2017). International Forum of Psychoanalysis, 26(2):73-74


On the opening and closing of possible worlds

Grigoris Maniadakis

Freud once described himself as “a conquistador,” and this can obviously be linked with the “New World” he discovered, the world of the Unconscious, ruler of an internal reality. The concept of an internal world is not new, but it remains fundamental to psychoanalytic thought.

Equally fundamental is the concept of its relation to an external world. But, psychoanalytically speaking, in what does the external world consist? From the point of view of the internal world, it consists of what is perceived as external. This, according to Freud, is partly linked to a process of splitting off “of a part of [the] self which [is] project[ed] into the external world” (p. 136). This projected part is the one coinciding with unpleasure. Freud writes further that “at the very beginning, it seems, the external world, objects and what is hated are identical” (Freud, 1915, p. 136). So if the external world is identical with the object, the question of meeting of the two worlds is identical to the question of meeting with the object.

Bion conceived of a possible first meeting of these two worlds that he describes in terms of the mother–baby interaction. If the mother’s internal world is open and receptive enough to the baby’s projected unpleasure, distress, or hatred, she can give back to the baby as a bearable portion of the external world the unpleasure she metabolizes to empathic thought and meaning. In this way, the baby’s immature world can be gradually opened to external and internal reality, through interaction with the mother’s internal world (Bion, 1959).

[This is a summary excerpt from the full text of the journal article. The full text of the document is available to journal subscribers on the publisher's website here.]

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