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PEP-Easy Tip: To save PEP-Easy to the home screen

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

To start PEP-Easy without first opening your browser–just as you would start a mobile app, you can save a shortcut to your home screen.

First, in Chrome or Safari, depending on your platform, open PEP-Easy from You want to be on the default start screen, so you have a clean workspace.

Then, depending on your mobile device…follow the instructions below:


  1. Tap on the share icon Action navigation bar and tab bar icon
  2. In the bottom list, tap on ‘Add to home screen’
  3. In the “Add to Home” confirmation “bubble”, tap “Add”

On Android:

  1. Tap on the Chrome menu (Vertical Ellipses)
  2. Select “Add to Home Screen” from the menu


For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Searl, M.N. (1936). Infantile Ideals. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 17:17-39.

(1936). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 17:17-39

Infantile Ideals

M. N. Searl

The only dictionary definition of the ideal which does not prejudge the situation—as that it 'exists in imagination only'—is 'a conception of something or a thing conceived as perfect in its kind'. But used in its more absolute sense we can say it means the highest conception of everything—of a total situation excluding nothing of which we have or can have awareness, or of which we can conceive. When we speak of a something, of a particular situation, out of this everything as being ideal, we are obviously subtracting the enormously greater part of the total situation, and are using the word in a limited and secondary sense. But this is the sense in which I shall use the word in this paper, using the term absolute ideal for the unqualified and unlimited or total ideal. This ideal, in which everything reaches one's highest conception of it, is naturally the more nearly and easily attainable the more limited our 'everything'. Therefore infancy with its limited radius of desire and conception is the time when, other things being equal, the absolute ideal can, from that point of view, be most nearly realized, as well as most hopelessly threatened, with the exception of adult sexual relationships in which the conscious world is limited to two people become one. Those who do not put the whole stress on conscious formulation will not stumble over the word 'conception' in connection with infancy. The smallest infant certainly has some kind of awareness of the difference between happiness and unhappiness, pleasure and pain, comfort and discomfort, content and discontent—whichever pairs of words best describe his type of awareness of contrasting states.

But I am also in this paper using the term 'negative ideal', which may seem a contradiction in terms. I do not think it is, if we keep to the definition 'the conception of something or a thing conceived as perfect in its kind, ' or, more shortly, 'the highest conception of anything'—that is, keeping it in the limited and secondary use of the term, and remembering also how the conception of what is highest or perfect can vary according to person and circumstances.


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