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Fairbairn, W.R. (1941). A Revised Psychopathology of the Psychoses and Psychoneuroses. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 22:250-279.

(1941). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 22:250-279

A Revised Psychopathology of the Psychoses and Psychoneuroses Related Papers Language Translation

W. R.D. Fairbairn


Within recent years I have become increasingly interested in the problems presented by schizophrenic and schizoid patients and have devoted special attention to these problems. The result has been the emergence of a point of view which, if it proves to be well-founded, must necessarily have far-reaching implications both for psychiatry in general and for psycho-analysis in particular. My various findings and the conclusions to which they lead involve not only a considerable revision of prevailing ideas regarding the nature and ætiology of schizoid conditions, but also a considerable revision of ideas regarding the prevalence of schizoid processes and a corresponding change in current clinical conceptions of the various psychoneuroses and psychoses. My findings and conclusions also involve a recasting and re-orientation of the libido theory together with a modification of various classical psycho-analytical concepts.

For various reasons the present paper will be for the most part restricted to a consideration of the more general aspects of the point of view to which I have been led by the study of schizoid conditions. Special consideration of the psychopathology of these schizoid conditions themselves must unfortunately be deferred until a subsequent occasion. It is necessary to make clear, however, that much of the argument which follows depends upon a conclusion to which I have been driven by the analysis of schizoid cases, but which, for lack of space to expand the theme, I must reluctantly treat as axiomatic—the conclusion, namely, that the schizoid group is much more comprehensive than has hitherto been recognized, and that a high percentage of anxiety states and of paranoid, phobic, hysterical and obsessional symptoms have a definitely schizoid background. The comprehensive meaning which I have come to attach to the concept of 'Schizoid' may perhaps best be indicated by the statement that, according to my findings, the schizoid group comprises all those to whom the Jungian concept of 'Introvert' would apply.

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