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Tip: To review the bibliography…

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It is always useful to review an article’s bibliography and references to get a deeper understanding of the psychoanalytic concepts and theoretical framework in it.

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Ruddick, B. (1961). Agoraphobia. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 42:537-543.

(1961). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 42:537-543


Bruce Ruddick


The problem of agoraphobia is reviewed. In various cases it is seen as a symptom occurring in differing neurotic constellations. From a review of the literature and the clinical material presented, it does not seem to be an exclusively hysterical mechanism. It is associated with conversion hysterias, obsessional neuroses, depressions and character disorders. In two cases it is shown to be related to a failure at the earliest oral level of incorporation and of the formation of a functioning superego. This failure of oral incorporation is found to be related to early oral traumata. The agoraphobes of an oral, clinging character showed severe limitations of the ego which were only partially compensated for by the presence of an alter ego, represented by a loving or protecting parent surrogate.

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