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PEP-Web Tip of the Day

To start PEP-Easy without first opening your browser–just as you would start a mobile app, you can save a shortcut to your home screen.

First, in Chrome or Safari, depending on your platform, open PEP-Easy from You want to be on the default start screen, so you have a clean workspace.

Then, depending on your mobile device…follow the instructions below:


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  3. In the “Add to Home” confirmation “bubble”, tap “Add”

On Android:

  1. Tap on the Chrome menu (Vertical Ellipses)
  2. Select “Add to Home Screen” from the menu


For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Liendo, E.C. (1976). A Discussion of the Paper by Ishak Ramzy and Howard Shevrin on 'The Nature of the Inference Process in Psychoanalytic Interpretation: A Critical Review of the Literature'. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 57:161-165.

(1976). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 57:161-165

A Discussion of the Paper by Ishak Ramzy and Howard Shevrin on 'The Nature of the Inference Process in Psychoanalytic Interpretation: A Critical Review of the Literature'

Ernesto Cesar Liendo

I fully agree with the importance given by Drs Ramzy and Shevrin (this issue) to the need for rigorously systematizing a psychoanalytical methodology in order to give psychoanalytic theory the scientific structure which, based upon clinical observation, will enable it to formulate laws applicable to the psychic system and eventually to offer predictions susceptible of proof.

I shall therefore make general comments on their paper while leaving aside certain concepts, and devote myself to furthering contributions to their serious and essential line of thought. For the same reason I shall attempt to give my own tentative reply to two aspects of the same essential question repeatedly asked by the authors: (1) On what basis or by what process the analyst selects the relevant general principle or frame of reference in the process of arriving at interpretations? (2) How to arrive systematically at the empirical test which facilitates the full development of psychoanalysis as a science of 'traces'.

Quoting Cheshire (1964) who states that Freud 'committed no grosser crime than to take determinism seriously', the authors assert that 'A strict determinism is the basis of science, any science, and is not the sole priority of the "advanced sciences".' Since I agree with that declaration, I shall begin by stating which are the elements that lead me to believe that psychoanalysis should be bound within limits in the same way as the other factual disciplines are, and then go on to give a brief outline of the scientific method which individuates it from them.

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