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Winograd, B. (1991). Psychic Change Regarding the Theory of Technique. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 72:33-38.

(1991). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 72:33-38

Psychic Change Regarding the Theory of Technique

Benzion Winograd

As an introduction to this complex and extremely broad theme I have to state that for the purpose of synthesis I shall have to leave out many fields of reflection. That is why in this paper I will only comment on some questions and above all delimit the theoretical framework of my speculations. As a matter of fact, both the concept of 'change' and the notion of 'psychic' obviously appear outside the field of psychoanalysis and even within it their possible shades of meaning can generate interminable discussions.

Quoting Freud when he introduces the theory of narcissism: 'But I am of opinion that that is just the difference between a speculative theory and a science erected on empirical interpretation. The latter will not envy speculation its privilege of having a smooth, logically unassailable foundation, but will gladly content itself with nebulous, scarcely imaginable basic concepts, which it hopes to apprehend more clearly in the course of its development, or which it is even prepared to replace by others' (1914p. 77).

I shall first mention some texts that have particularly stimulated these reflections. Apart from Freud's classical works I refer to those of Argentine psychoanalysts: Angel Garma's (1974) about resistances during the final stages of psychoanalytical treatments; José Bleger's (1973) about the therapeutic aims in psychoanalysis; David Liberman's (1969) about the outcome of the therapeutic processes; Fernando Guiard's (1974) about the musical components of language at the end of treatment; M. & W. Baranger's & Jorge Mom's (1983) on process and non-process and Carlos M. Aslan's (1989) about common ground in psychoanalysis.

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