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Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and Loss: Volume III: Loss, Sadness and Depression. The International Psycho-Analytical Library, 109:1-462. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.

(1980). The International Psycho-Analytical Library, 109:1-462. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.

Attachment and Loss: Volume III: Loss, Sadness and Depression

John Bowlby


  Acknowledgements xiii
  Preface 1
  Part I: Observations, Concepts and Controversies
1 The Trauma of Loss 7
  Prelude 7
  Grief in infancy and early childhood 9
  Do young children mourn? a controversy 14
  Detachment 19
2 The Place of Loss and Mourning in Psychopathology 23
  A clinical tradition 23
  Ideas regarding the nature of mourning processes, healthy and pathological 24
  Ideas to account for individual differences n response to loss 34
3 Conceptual Framework 38
  Attachment theory: an outline 38
  Stressors and states of stress and distress 41
4 An Infomation Processing Approach to Defence 44
  A new approach 44
  Exclusion of information from further processing 44
  Subliminal perception and perceptual defence 46
  Stages at which processes of defensive exclusion may operate 52
  Self or selves 59
  Some consequences of defensive exclusion 64
  Conditions that promote defensive exclusion 69
  Defensive exclusion: adaptive or maladaptive 72
5 Plan of Work 75
  Part II: The Mourning of Adults
6 Loss of Spouse 81
  Source 81
  Four phases of mourning 85
  Differences between widows and widowers 103
  Note: details of sources 106
7 Loss of Child 112
  Introduction 112
  Parents of fatally ill children 113
  Parents of infants who are stillborn or die early 122
  Affectional bonds of diffrent types: a note 124
8 Mourning in Other Cultures 126
  Beliefs and customs common to many cultures 126
  Mourning a grown son in Tikopia 132
  Mourning a husband in Japan 134
9 Disordered Variants 137
  Two main variants 137
  Chronic mourning 141
  Prolonged absence of conscious grieving 152
  Mislocations fo the lost person's presence 161
  Euphoria 169
10 Conditions Affecting the Course of Mourning 172
  Five categories of variable 172
  Identity and role of person lost 173
  Age and sex of person bereaved 178
  Causes and circumstances of loss 180
  Social and psychological circumstances affecting the bereaved 187
  Evidence from therapeutic intervention 195
11 Personalities Prone to Disordered Mourning 202
  Limitations of evidence 202
  Disposition to make anxious and ambivalent relationships 203
  Disposition towards complusive caregiving 206
  Disposition to assert independence of affectional ties 211
  Tentative conclusions 222
12 Childhood Experience of Persons Prone to Disordered Mourning 214
  Traditional theories 214
  The position adopted 216
  Experiences disposing towards anxious and ambivalent attachment 218
  Experiences disposing towards compulsive caregiving 222
  Experiences disposing towards assertion of independence of affectional ties 224
13 Cognitive Process Contributing to Variations in Response to Loss 229
  A framework for conceptualizing cognitive processes 229
  Cognitive biases affecting responses to loss 232
  Biases contributing to chronic mourning 234
  Biases contributing to prolonged absence of grieving 239
  Biased perceptions of potential comforters 240
  Biases contributing to a healthy outcome 242
  Interaction of congnitive biases with other conditions affecting responses to loss 243
14 Sadness, Depression and Depressive Disoder 245
  Sadness and depression 245
  Depressive disorder and childhood experience 246
  Depressive disorders and their relation to loss: George Brown's study 250
  The role of neurophysiological processes 261
  Part III: The Mourning of Children
15 Death of Parent during Childhood and Adolesence 265
  Sources and plan of work 265
  When and what a child is told 271
  Children's ideas about death 273
16 Children's Responses when Conditions are Favorable 276
  Mourning in two four-year-olds 276
  Some tentative conclusions 285
  Diffrences between children's mourning and adults 295
  Behaviour of surviving parents to their bereaved children 292
17 Childhood Bereavement and Psychiatric Disorder 295
  Increased risk of psychiatric disorder 295
  Some disorders to which childhood bereavement contributes 300
18 conditions Responsible for Difference in Outcome 311
  Source of evidence 311
  Evidence from surveys 312
  Evidence from therapeutic studies 317
19 Children's Responses when Conditions are Unfavourable 320
  Four children whose mourning failed 320
  Peter, eleven when father died 321
  Henry, eight when mother died 327
  Visha, ten when father died 333
  Geraldine, eight when mother died 338
20 Deactivation and the cocnept fo Segregated Systems 345
21 Disordered Variants and Some Conditions Contributing 350
  Persisting anxiety 351
  Hopes of reunion: desire to die 354
  Persisting blame and guilt 358
  Overactivity: aggressive and destructive outbursts 361
  Compulsive caregiving annd self-reliance 365
  Euphoria and depersonalization 370
  Identificatory symptoms: accidents 376
22 Effects of a Parent's Suicide 381
  Proportion of parents' deaths due to suicide 381
  Findings from surveys 382
  Findings from therapeutic studies 383
23 Responses to Loss during the Third and Fourth Years 390
  Questions remaining 390
  Responses when coditiosn are favourable 390
  Responses when coditions are unfavourable 397
24 Responses to Loss during the Second Year 412
  A transitional period 412
  Responses when coditiosn are favourable 412
  Responses when coditions are unfavourable 416
25 Young Children's Responses in the Light of Early Cognitive Development 425
  Developing the concept of person permanence 425
  The role of person permanence in determining respondses to separation and loss 433
  Epilogue 441
  Bibliography 443

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Once again in preparing this volume I have been helped and encouraged by many friends and colleagues who have given most generously of their time and thought.

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