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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Rogawski, A.S. (1982). Is the Medical Model Appropriate for Psychoanalysis?. J. Amer. Acad. Psychoanal., 10(1):113-122.

(1982). Journal of American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 10(1):113-122

Is the Medical Model Appropriate for Psychoanalysis?

Alexander S. Rogawski, M.D.*

The term “model” has been employed with at least two different though related meanings: (1) As an organizer of information, in an epistemological sense, a model is a construct that allows us to better understand the nature of a complex phenomenon by virtue of its analogous structure. A model can be a physical structure or a conceptual system which clarifies the interrelationships of its parts by the correspondence with the object with which it is compared. (2) In a pragmatic sense a model connotes something that is worthy of imitation, an exemplar or ideal. This is the case when we speak of a role model or a set of rules for conduct.

In the first sense a model illustrates how we may think about something or how we can visualize it in our mind. In the second sense a model indicates how we act or should act.

A model is neither true nor false; it is either useful or inappropriate.

For the purpose of this presentation I shall mean by “medical model” a set of elements underlying the theories of medicine and a set of rules governing the behavior of people involved in its practice.

To determine whether and to what extent the medical model is appropriate for psychoanalysis I shall examine whether the principles underlying the theories and practices of medicine have validity for the ways psychoanalysts approach corresponding issues.


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