Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
Tip: To view citations for the most cited journals…

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

Statistics of the number of citations for the Most Cited Journal Articles on PEP Web can be reviewed by clicking on the “See full statistics…” link located at the end of the Most Cited Journal Articles list in the PEP tab.


For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Bradway, K. (1964). Jung's Psychological Types: Classification by test versus classification by self. J. Anal. Psychol., 9(2):129-135.

(1964). Journal of Analytical Psychology, 9(2):129-135

Jung's Psychological Types: Classification by test versus classification by self

Katherine Bradway


DESPITE the fact that Jung presented his theory of psychological types nearly half a century ago (Jung, 1921), American psychology has continued to classify individual differences in personality, almost exclusively, according to psychological theories based upon a normal distribution of personality traits from none to much. This is in contrast to Jung's concept of a pair of opposing attitudes: introversion and extraversion; a pair of opposing perception functions: sensation and intuition; and a pair of opposing judgement functions: thinking and feeling. With the recent appearance of reports of research In which subjects are described or selected in terms of these classifications, the desirability of evaluating available tests of psychological types is apparent. This study was undertaken to evaluate two such tests: the Gray-Wheelwright Questionnaire (Gray and Wheelwright, 1946) and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Saunders, 1958). Each of these tests was to be compared with an outside criterion. The criterion selected was the self-typing of Jungian analysts.

Subjects and Procedure

Twenty-eight practising analysts, members of the two Jungian analytical societies in California, participated in this study. The group consisted of 17 males and n females between the ages of 34 and 70 years (median chronological age: 50·0 years), either licensed physicians or certified psychologists. The subjects were asked, before taking either test, to indicate the type to which they thought they belonged in terms of introversion versus extra-version, sensation versus intuition, and thinking versus feeling.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2020, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.