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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Shapiro, T. (2010). The Bicameral Brain and the Conflicted Mind and Their Relation to Suggestion and Hypnosis. Neuropsychoanalysis, 12(1):35-38.

(2010). Neuropsychoanalysis, 12(1):35-38

The Bicameral Brain and the Conflicted Mind and Their Relation to Suggestion and Hypnosis Related Papers

Commentary by
Theodore Shapiro

Three issues suggested by Raz & Wolfson are illuminated and discussed: (1) Differences between cognitive and dynamic unconscious and their relationship to the history of Freud's original neurological frame of reference; his abandonment of the “Project” as a basis for clinical work and the later post-Freudian attempts to link conflict-based ego psychology to the conflict-free sphere of thought. (2). Discreteness of levels of inquiry from the vantage of instrumentation and technique, as well as the need to keep separate the language of the varied domains that are studied. (3) Suggestion, transference, and dialogue are intertwined, but the historic sequences of their emergence are important to understand Freud's need to disavow suggestion. The independence of free association from suggestion and the significance of repression in Freud's theory would be untenable if all he was doing was infusing the clinical field with preformed suggestions. The new method demanded discovery of what had been repressed for the demonstration Freud intended.

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