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Blum, H.P. (1999). Freud and Jung: The Internationalization of Psychoanalysis. Psychoanal. Hist., 1(1):44-55.

(1999). Psychoanalysis and History, 1(1):44-55

Freud and Jung: The Internationalization of Psychoanalysis

Harold P Blum

Today there is a resurgence of interest in the history of psychoanalysis, facilitated and inspired by new books and the release of historical documents by The Sigmund Freud Archives and other sources and discoveries. It is now possible to further reconstruct the historical events; the psychodynamics of the interrelationships of Freud and Jung; and the subsequent impact of their joint international journey to America. Contrary to Freud's expectations, psychoanalysis would gradually have a major influence not only upon American psychiatry and psychology, but also upon American intellectual and cultural life. Freud probably would have been astounded that the Archives conserving his papers and letters were at the United States Library of Congress.

Freud, Jung, and Ferenczi arrived on the steamer George Washington in New York on 29 August 1909 for a fateful stay of approximately forty days. Freud had invited Ferenczi, his close new friend and colleague, to accompany him and Jung to America. All three had booked passage in first class accommodations. Freud and Jung had been invited by G. Stanley Hall to receive honorary degrees (Doctor of Laws) on the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of the founding of Clark University. Ernest Jones had arrived at the end of the week in New York and accompanied Freud, Jung, and Ferenczi to Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts (Rosenzweig 1992). We are in a position to go beyond the comments of Freud and Jung about their relationship, its peak after the American visit, the founding of the IPA, and the decline and dissolution of their relationship.

When Freud wrote his brief autobiography in 1925, he gave a distilled account of his trip where he spent a week giving lectures. What was rather amazing for its day was that Stanley Hall, as President of Clark University, had already introduced psychoanalytic ideas into courses at the University, was interested and had written on the evolution of human sexuality, and had the vision to honor Freud with the invitation. Freud (1925) wrote of the visit after describing Hall as a ‘king maker.’

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