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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Goggin, J.E. Goggin, E.B. Hill, M. (2004). Emigrant Psychoanalysts in the USA and the FBI Archives. Psychoanal. Hist., 6(1):75-92.

(2004). Psychoanalysis and History, 6(1):75-92

Emigrant Psychoanalysts in the USA and the FBI Archives

James E. Goggin, Ph.D., Eileen Brockman Goggin, Ph.D. and Mary Hill


We are going to present our findings from the FBI files collected on the émigré psychoanalysts from Germany during the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s. Interest in the fate of people who have had to flee their homes in Germany and find refuge in strange nations has increased. A perusal of this genre of ‘émigré research' shows that several themes recur. One prominent example is the theme of ‘loss’. There is loss of one's culture and homeland, loss of language and, very often, the loss of dear family members and economic security. Another theme is the ambivalent welcome these émigrés received in their new country. Even the American analysts had mixed feelings about the arrival of their new colleagues (Hale 1995; Langer & Gifford 1978). We Americans tend to pride ourselves on being a ‘melting pot’. However, this professed belief often concealed a darker side, such that every émigré group that has come to the United States has gone through a period of prejudice, was discriminated against and was viewed with suspicion before it was eventually given an opportunity to assimilate (Moynihan & Glazer 1963). Another factor to consider is that the German émigrés varied on an individual basis in both their desire and their ability to adapt to a new home.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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