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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Fenichel, O. (1933). Outline of Clinical Psychoanalysis. Psychoanal Q., 2:562-591.

(1933). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 2:562-591

Outline of Clinical Psychoanalysis

Otto Fenichel



a. Other Neurotic Disorders of Sexual Function

There are a number of neurotic disorders of sexual functioning, which though not perversions are usually discussed in connection with them. Among these are the phenomena of hyposexuality and hypersexuality in persons who compared with the normal appear to have either too weak or too strong a sexual impulse. Obviously such cases may be purely organic in nature, the result of somatic endocrine disorder. However, it is quite often evident that the anomaly only appears to be organic and is actually due to psychological factors. This latter type of pseudo hyposexuality or pseudo hypersexuality will be the topic of our present discussion.

Hyposexuality is frequently a pretense due to a gross confusion of genitality and sexuality in general. Persons ostensibly deficient in sexual desire are those whose libido runs along other than genital channels. In the final analysis all neurotic persons are disturbed by an inhibited sexuality, inhibited because of its unconscious infantile meaning—and by the displacement of their libido. This outcome affects only part of the libido, a part, however, which must be sufficiently large to maintain the existence of the neurotic symptoms, yet may be sufficiently small to let the patient's sexual life appear undisturbed and allow him to feel subjectively that it is satisfactory. However, in most cases the amount of this libido is larger.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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