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PEP-Easy Tip: To save PEP-Easy to the home screen

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

To start PEP-Easy without first opening your browser–just as you would start a mobile app, you can save a shortcut to your home screen.

First, in Chrome or Safari, depending on your platform, open PEP-Easy from You want to be on the default start screen, so you have a clean workspace.

Then, depending on your mobile device…follow the instructions below:


  1. Tap on the share icon Action navigation bar and tab bar icon
  2. In the bottom list, tap on ‘Add to home screen’
  3. In the “Add to Home” confirmation “bubble”, tap “Add”

On Android:

  1. Tap on the Chrome menu (Vertical Ellipses)
  2. Select “Add to Home Screen” from the menu


For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Hoskins, R.G. (1936). An Endocrine Approach to Psychodynamics. Psychoanal Q., 5:87-107.

(1936). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 5:87-107

An Endocrine Approach to Psychodynamics

R. G. Hoskins

As Sir Edward Sharpey-Schafer has pointed out, the development of endocrinology in recent decades has added an entirely new principle to physiology. The most superficial consideration of the effect of depriving the individual of any essential hormone is sufficient to bring sharply into focus the fact that physiology minus the hormones is not physiology at all. In so far then as one honestly repudiates the mind-body disjunction he must concede an important rôle to the hormones as determinants of personality. It is, however, unfortunately true that competent psychologists have been little attracted to endocrinology as a field for serious work and that endocrinologists have shied away from the intangibilities of psychology. The result is that one of the fundamentally important chapters of endocrinology remains yet largely to be written.

When the endocrinologist seriously turns his attention to personality he is led at once to a consideration of psychodynamics and thus to the formulations of the freudian school. He finds a special psychoanalytic terminology for phenomena with which he too is familiar and in which he has a necessary interest. The endocrinologist deals with actual input and transformations of energy whereas the psychoanalyst is concerned primarily with energy distributions. Thus the dynamic

From the Memorial Foundation for Neuro-Endocrine Research, Harvard Medical School.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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