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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Rangell, L. (1949). Psychiatry. XI, 1948: Observations Concerning Typical Anxiety Dreams. Irving Harris. Pp. 301–309.. Psychoanal Q., 18:405-406.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: Psychiatry. XI, 1948: Observations Concerning Typical Anxiety Dreams. Irving Harris. Pp. 301–309.

(1949). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 18:405-406

Psychiatry. XI, 1948: Observations Concerning Typical Anxiety Dreams. Irving Harris. Pp. 301–309.

Leo Rangell

A study was made of two typical anxiety dreams, dreams of falling and dreams of being attacked from without, in roughly four thousand people, including selectees at induction, military patients, children and mothers. The method consisted of direct brief questioning about consciously remembered dreams and various expressions of overt acts of aggression and hostility toward

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either parent. The hypothesis was advanced that the falling dream might reflect chiefly fear over loss of love or support from the mother and the dreams of being attacked, fear of castration by the father—corresponding to the two commonly known psychic threats in the infant. It was therefore anticipated that the tendency in people with predominantly falling dreams would be to inhibit aggression toward the mother and to express it more overtly toward the father while the opposite would be true of those dreams of being attacked. The answers obtained supported the tentative hypothesis. The limitations and inconclusiveness of the methodology were recognized. It was suggested that the eliciting of a person's predominant anxiety dream might be of use in the diagnostic psychiatric interview.

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Article Citation

Rangell, L. (1949). Psychiatry. XI, 1948. Psychoanal. Q., 18:405-406

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