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Van Der Heide, C. (1949). Psychoanalytic Review. XXXV, 1948: Memorial Issue for Smith Ely Jelliffe and Abraham A. Brill. Pp. 343–452.. Psychoanal Q., 18:529-530.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: Psychoanalytic Review. XXXV, 1948: Memorial Issue for Smith Ely Jelliffe and Abraham A. Brill. Pp. 343–452.

(1949). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 18:529-530

Psychoanalytic Review. XXXV, 1948: Memorial Issue for Smith Ely Jelliffe and Abraham A. Brill. Pp. 343–452.

Carel Van Der Heide

The editors of The Psychoanalytic Review have dedicated this issue (Number 4) to the honor of its founder and of an associate editor, both deceased during 1948. In doing so, they succeeded in building a monument to the memory of two great men without whose tremendous achievements the development of psychoanalysis and psychosomatic medicine in this country cannot be visualized.

An obituary of Jelliffe was written by Brill (pp. 343–349) in which he describes the different periods of Jelliffe's scientific production. He vividly comments on Jelliffe's exceptional endowment which allowed this 'psychoanalytic psychiatrist' to embrace biological medicine, neurology, psychiatry, and psychoanalysis, and thus led him to become a pioneer thinker in psychosomatic medicine.

Karl Menninger and George Devereux (pp. 350–363), calling Jelliffe 'The Father of Psychosomatic Medicine in America', present a report of Jelliffe's work in this field. A bibliography of thirty-four papers on psychosomatic subjects, beginning in 1916, comprises studies on influenza, skin diseases, psychotherapy and tuberculosis, postencephalitic parkinsonism and oculogyric crises, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and arthritis. Menninger dwells on certain characteristics of expression used by Jelliffe which were apt to disturb his readers and audiences (for instance, the use of hybrid language such as 'a cough is a call for help'). This, according to Menninger, may partially account for the fact that Jelliffe never was given the academic teaching opportunities which he otherwise so highly deserved. However, at this time of frequently

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dangerous enthusiasm in psychosomatic practice, it is beneficial to learn that Jelliffe strove to distinguish between psychological factors determining the choice of a particular organ for the expression of disease, psychological factors coloring the response of a given individual to a certain illness, and finally psychological changes resulting from 'organic' disease. Jelliffe also stands out as a psychosomatic therapist who did not consider psychological factors a contraindication for somatic treatment.

Under the title, A Brief Passage, Arthur N. Foxe presents some personal memories of Jelliffe (pp. 364–366).

The section devoted to Jelliffe closes with a reprint of The Ecological Principle in Medicine (pp. 367–388), a paper read by him in 1935 before the Central Neuropsychiatric Association. After referring to Socrates' understanding of the body-soul unity and his 'incantations', Jelliffe defines ecology as 'the study of the environmental adaptation of the organism with particular emphasis on its friendly and hostile relations'. He then introduces himself as the object of ecological research and discusses the interrelationships of his own latent spasmophilic condition, the altered calcium metabolism, the resulting osteopathology, the habit of hyperventilation during his oratorical efforts and its psychological origin. Following this daring and broadminded psychosomatic self-analysis, the ecological principle is demonstrated in various diseases reaching beyond Cannon's Wisdom of the Body and into the pathology and ideological aspects of illness. Thus, the muscle-joint-bone trilogy is related to the repression of anger, and pulmonary tuberculosis to the Nirvana principle. Attention is called to the symbolic significance of the predilection of certain skin ailments for the flexor and of others for the exterior skin surfaces. A discussion of the emotional components of cardiovascular disease leads to a differentiation of the tachycardia among phobic, conversion and projection types. Obviously, in his study of ecology, Jelliffe laid down some essentials of psychosomatic medicine of which the language and technique but not the principle have been altered during the subsequent fifteen years.

C. P. Oberndorf delivers an obituary on Abraham Arden Brill (pp. 389–393), and Nolan D. C. Lewis depicts Brill as a psychiatrist (pp. 399–402). In both biographies tribute is paid to Brill for his great achievements. Among the most outstanding were the introduction of psychoanalysis and dynamic psychiatry to the United States, the Freud translations, his original writings on psychoanalysis, and the founding of the New York Psychoanalytic Society in 1911. Fritz Wittels honors Brill—The Pioneer (pp. 394–398)—and relates memories of their personal acquaintance when both were with Freud in Vienna in 1907. In describing Brill's philosophy of life, Wittels appropriately quotes from a paper Brill read for the Vidonian Club one year prior to his death: 'those who have lived well their allotted sum of years, usually die without fear'.

This memorial issue contains a Bibliography of Freud's Preanalytic Period by Horace Gray (pp. 403–410). This list, more complete than ones previously published, mentions sixty-five scientific papers from 1877 to 1897.

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Article Citation

Van Der Heide, C. (1949). Psychoanalytic Review. XXXV, 1948. Psychoanal. Q., 18:529-530

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