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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Geleerd, E.R. (1950). Kriegskinder (War Children): By Dorothy Burlingham and Anna Freud. London: Imago Publishing Co., Ltd., 1949. 82 pp.. Psychoanal Q., 19:595-596.

(1950). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 19:595-596

Kriegskinder (War Children): By Dorothy Burlingham and Anna Freud. London: Imago Publishing Co., Ltd., 1949. 82 pp.

Review by:
Elisabeth R. Geleerd

The English edition of this book was published in 1943 under the title War and Children and was extensively reviewed by Edith Entenman. The reader is reminded that it was originally written for the Foster Parents' Plan for War Children, Inc., some of whose residential nurseries in England Anna Freud and Dorothy Burlingham directed during the war. The book was designed to serve as a guide to this organization and others engaged in child welfare work. While not intended to give the authors' complete observations nor the resulting psychoanalytic conclusions and evaluations, it is important reading for psychoanalysts since it opens new vistas and sheds new light on many phenomena. The description of the development of object relationships and the trauma of separation with its specific reactions at various age levels is new in the analytic literature. The effects of bombing on aggression, fear and superego development are clearly evaluated. Reports of observations, in the form of a letter, were written monthly and sent to supporters of the nurseries. Some of these were included in the English book but have been omitted in the German version.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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