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Tip: To review the bibliography…

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

It is always useful to review an article’s bibliography and references to get a deeper understanding of the psychoanalytic concepts and theoretical framework in it.

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(1950). American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. XX, 1950: Approaches to a Dynamic Theory of Development. Round Table 1949. Sibylle K. Escalona, Chairman.. Psychoanal Q., 19:614.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. XX, 1950: Approaches to a Dynamic Theory of Development. Round Table 1949. Sibylle K. Escalona, Chairman.

(1950). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 19:614

American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. XX, 1950: Approaches to a Dynamic Theory of Development. Round Table 1949. Sibylle K. Escalona, Chairman.

1. Relation of Cup Feeding in Infancy to Thumb-Sucking and the Oral Drive. Robert R. Sears and George W. Wise. Pp. 123–138.

Studies by Sears and Wise indicate that the strength of oral drives is increased and frustration reactions are more intense when weaning takes place at a later period. The authors do not dispute the existence of a primary sucking drive; rather they see a confirmation of Freud's formulation that the lips and mouth become erotogenic due to the pleasures of food intake.

Reviewing David Levy's studies on thumb-sucking, Sears and Wise point out that his material was drawn from subjects whose oral habits had already become well established. They do not regard the increased frustration reactions after weaning from prolonged breast or bottle feeding as necessarily harmful.

2. Methodological Considerations in the Validation and Elaboration of Psychoanalytical Personality Theory. John D. Benjamin. Pp. 139–156.

Benjamin is of the opinion that 'some of the many unsolved problems of personality development can best be approached through what might be termed a prospective historical instead of a restrospective historical method, through the long-term psychological study of human beings from birth on'. He emphasizes especially the predictability of developments as a means of validating both psychoanalytic interpretations and propositions. He points to experimental, observational work on infants as a demonstration of such methods in action.

3. Discussion. Sibylle K. Escalona. Pp. 157–160.

Escalona is dubious as to the possibility of validating by observational or experimental means 'those psychoanalytic insights which form the core of developmental theory, namely, the assumptions concerning psychosexual maturation'. She also raises for consideration problems attendant upon the multivariable approach which is so essential in psychoanalysis; she points out that the physical sciences have begun to develop methods for such purposes which may prove useful as models.

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Article Citation

(1950). American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. XX, 1950. Psychoanal. Q., 19:614

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