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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Fromm-Reichmann, F. (1953). Symbolic Realization. A New Method of Psychotherapy Applied to a Case of Schizophrenia: By M. A. Sechehaye. New York: International Universities Press, Inc., 1951. 184 pp.. Psychoanal Q., 22:427-430.

(1953). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 22:427-430

Symbolic Realization. A New Method of Psychotherapy Applied to a Case of Schizophrenia: By M. A. Sechehaye. New York: International Universities Press, Inc., 1951. 184 pp.

Review by:
Frieda Fromm-Reichmann

Mme. Sechehaye's account of 'a new method of psychotherapy applied to a case of schizophrenia' furnishes confirmation of the knowledge of those psychiatrists who have applied modified psychoanalytic methods in the treatment of schizophrenics for the past thirty years. It also offers a source of new insight and conviction to those who have remained sceptical with regard to the possibilities of treating psychotic schizophrenics by intensive psychotherapy. Mme. Sechehaye's experience with her patient proves that the meaning of verbalized and nonverbalized schizophrenic reactions can be understood on the basis of psychoanalytic knowledge of the unconscious and its expression as manifested in dreams and, equally impressively, in psychotic productions.

This work also shows that active and spontaneous responses in word and action to the productions of the schizophrenic patient are much more effective in the lengthy adventure of psychoanalytically oriented treatment of psychotic patients than are interpretations made by a detached and neutral psychotherapist.


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