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Isakower, O. (1954). Spoken Words in Dreams—A Preliminary Communication. Psychoanal Q., 23:1-6.

(1954). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 23:1-6

Spoken Words in Dreams—A Preliminary Communication

Otto Isakower, M.D.

In The Interpretation of Dreams, Freud stated it as an invariable rule that when a spoken utterance occurs in a dream, it has originated from a remembered speech in the dream material, and that the wording of the speech has either been preserved in its entirety or has been slightly altered in expression.

While Freud made no attempt to integrate this statement with his dream theory, leaving it in a completely descriptive state, his subsequent systematic presentations regarding the structure of the personality afford a tactical advantage to a renewed investigation of this special problem.

In a previous paper I have traced the psychological correlations of the static apparatus, the organ of equilibrium, and of the auditory apparatus. Certain crustaceans 'incorporate' particles of sand to use them as otoliths, that is, to aid their orientation in space. The human being's need for orientation, in the widest sense, is met by speech, which also is based upon material taken in from the outer world, through auditory incorporation. Here it is not only the verbal elements themselves, but also the assimilation and correct combination of verbal images, the development of a grammatical and logical order in the processes of speech and thought. This auditory incorporation then becomes of fundamental importance for the functions of the superego, which later in a similar way serves to orient the individual in the outside world as well as in his inner world.

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