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(1954). Samiksa. IV, 1951: Four Types of Dreams Indicating Progress During Psychoanalytic Treatment. Edmund Bergler. Pp. 190-199.. Psychoanal Q., 23:296-297.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: Samiksa. IV, 1951: Four Types of Dreams Indicating Progress During Psychoanalytic Treatment. Edmund Bergler. Pp. 190-199.

(1954). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 23:296-297

Samiksa. IV, 1951: Four Types of Dreams Indicating Progress During Psychoanalytic Treatment. Edmund Bergler. Pp. 190-199.

Bergler reiterates his and Jekels' thesis that dreams express not only infantile wishes but also 'an attempt at refutation of reproaches stemming from the inner conscience (superego)'. He concentrates on four specific dreams giving the analyst and analysand the possibility of a controlled experiment to tell whether the analysis is on the right track—one at the beginning, one at the middle, and two near the end of analysis, which appear with great regularity. Type I, the 'refutation dream', occurs early if the interpretation given the patient is dynamically correct. The superego takes up the interpretation and misuses it, to prove that the analyst is wrong. If the interpretation is incorrect, such refutation is unnecessary. Bergler illustrates with a dream about an overcoat in connection with which the patient was cheated. The patient used the dream to refute the interpretation that he employed pseudo aggression to cloak his masochistic attachment to his mother. Type II, encountered in the middle of analysis, Bergler calls 'antifallacy dreams'; these occur after interpretations have shown the patient how he misuses his childhood experiences to blame his difficulties on others and to avoid seeing how he uses these experiences. In Bergler's example, the patient dreamed that his mother was in the hospital and wanted to see her daughter-in-law. The patient had attempted to deny his masochistic attachment to his mother by flight into a marriage which only duplicated his earlier unresolved infantile difficulties. According to Bergler, the superego in this dream unmasks the patient's 'basic fallacy' and says, 'Mother isn't refusing; despite being provoked by you, she still wants to see your wife'.

Types III and IV, approaching the end of analysis, are respectively 'dreams embodying guilt for not being well yet' and 'dreams of devaluation of success already achieved'. In type III, after long working through of resistance and

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transference, the superego turns the tables; being unable to maintain the old corruptibility, it now becomes a champion of health. In type IV, the inner conscience, unable to prevent analytic success, minimizes the value of that success. Bergler regards these four types of dreams as of practical value in indicating analytic progress.

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Article Citation [Who Cited This?]

(1954). Samiksa. IV, 1951. Psychoanal. Q., 23:296-297

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