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PEP-Easy Tip: To save PEP-Easy to the home screen

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

To start PEP-Easy without first opening your browser–just as you would start a mobile app, you can save a shortcut to your home screen.

First, in Chrome or Safari, depending on your platform, open PEP-Easy from pepeasy.pep-web.org. You want to be on the default start screen, so you have a clean workspace.

Then, depending on your mobile device…follow the instructions below:

On IOS:

  1. Tap on the share icon Action navigation bar and tab bar icon
  2. In the bottom list, tap on ‘Add to home screen’
  3. In the “Add to Home” confirmation “bubble”, tap “Add”

On Android:

  1. Tap on the Chrome menu (Vertical Ellipses)
  2. Select “Add to Home Screen” from the menu

 

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

(1954). International Journal of Psychoanalysis. XXXIV, 1953: Impairment of the Sense of Reality as Manifested in Psychoneurosis and Everyday Life. George Frumkes. Pp. 123-131.. Psychoanal Q., 23:614-615.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: International Journal of Psychoanalysis. XXXIV, 1953: Impairment of the Sense of Reality as Manifested in Psychoneurosis and Everyday Life. George Frumkes. Pp. 123-131.

(1954). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 23:614-615

International Journal of Psychoanalysis. XXXIV, 1953: Impairment of the Sense of Reality as Manifested in Psychoneurosis and Everyday Life. George Frumkes. Pp. 123-131.

The sense of reality must be regarded as a process of shifting equilibrium, and it is relative. Like the erect posture, its maintenance requires work, reality testing. It is always possible for the sense of reality to become dissipated because of the pressure of the pleasure principle and because of the difficulties in maintaining the functions of adequate reality testing. It is also necessary that favorable conditions for the relaxation of reality testing should be furnished at appropriate times; there is need for mental as well as physical relaxation.

The infant at first exists in a condition of magical hallucinatory omnipotence since its desires are gratified by its nurse. As it grows its sense of omnipotence becomes more conditional; it may have to use words, gestures, and other efforts. These frustrations cause development of its sense of reality, which is manifested by such characteristics as strength of ego, intactness of ego boundaries, moderation in instinctual expression, and excellence of object relationships. These and other evidences of good sense of reality are probably all manifestations of a single process. We consider sense of reality well developed when we note ability to defer action and to employ it appropriately (not merely for discharging tension), and ability to distinguish clearly between self and not-self. Reality demands that the individual be aware that wishes and needs do not of themselves bring satisfaction. There must be ability to tolerate tension, alertness to the danger of ascribing omnipotence to anything, a clear distinction between object and symbol, and an ability to abandon reality temporarily in sleep and play in the confident expectation of finding one's way back.

In animistic religion there is identification with such natural objects as the sun and rain by manipulation of one's own body. The obsessional neurotic may mistake wishes for deeds. The phobic patient identifies an internal danger with an external one, because of a common symbol, and tries to deal with the internal one by measures appropriate to the external one. Eccentricities and foibles depend upon the confusion of different phenomena because they have

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a common symbol. The failure of the sense of reality may be seen in all neurotic resistances, such as repression when the painful truth cannot be tolerated. Transference is a resistance for the same reason and also because past and present are confused by reason of their possessing a common symbol. The most general expression of defective sense of reality is failure to distinguish between the self and the not-self and failure to give up the sense of omnipotence.

AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT

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Article Citation

(1954). International Journal of Psychoanalysis. XXXIV, 1953. Psychoanal. Q., 23:614-615

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