Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
Tip: To access the PEP-Web Facebook pageā€¦

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

PEP-Web has a Facebook page! You can access it by clicking here.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Giovacchini, P.L. (1967). Frustration and Externalization. Psychoanal Q., 36:571-583.

(1967). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 36:571-583

Frustration and Externalization

Peter L. Giovacchini, M.D.


Patients suffering from characterological defects emphasize certain defensive reactions that are not frequently encountered in the psychoneurotic. Some of these patients have an unusual orientation to the outer world. They must fail. They unconsciously attempt to create an environment in which they feel frustrated. This constitutes an adjustment; frustration has become a way of life. In so far as they cannot master a benign environment they construct one that is harsh and ungiving. The patient's attempt to reconstruct such a frustrating environment is highlighted in the transference. The patient feels frustrated because the constant reliability of the analytic situation refuses to frustrate him. This compensatory defense—the creation of a traumatic but familiar setting—is referred to as externalization, which is distinguished from masochism and projection. The techniques of working with such 'needy' patients demand further scrutiny.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2020, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.