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Gray, P. (1987). On the Technique of Analysis of the Superego—An Introduction. Psychoanal Q., 56:130-154.

(1987). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 56:130-154

On the Technique of Analysis of the Superego—An Introduction

Paul Gray, M.D.


As a result of Freud's ambiguity (and that of later analysts) regarding the nature of the superego and how to treat it in clinical practice, it has taken many years and many theoreticians to move from Freud's predilection to use it for purposes of "suggestion" in overcoming resistance, toward the concept of the superego as part of the ego's hierarchically mobilized defensive activities in the analytical process. Although much ambiguity persists, an attempt is made here to reduce it so that analytical technique may move forward to allow the superego to be analyzed as an unconscious conflict solution.

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