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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Gilkey, R. (1987). Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis. XIII, 1985: Boundary and Intimacy. Joel Paris. Pp. 505-510.. Psychoanal Q., 56:734-735.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis. XIII, 1985: Boundary and Intimacy. Joel Paris. Pp. 505-510.

(1987). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 56:734-735

Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis. XIII, 1985: Boundary and Intimacy. Joel Paris. Pp. 505-510.

Roderick Gilkey

Personal boundaries are necessary for psychological stability. Such boundaries must be at once impermeable enough to provide a person with a consistent sense of self-sameness, and porous enough to incorporate new experiences that contribute to growth. A developmental model is proposed that suggests that neglect in early life produces porous boundaries, such as those of the borderline personality. Conversely, intrusiveness can lead to the establishment of overly rigid boundaries, typically found in paranoid and narcissistically disturbed individuals. The author discusses

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two cases in which patients who grew up with an overly controlling mother and an absent father later experienced inability to tolerate intimacy in adult relationships. "The transference of both patients reflected their extreme sensitivity to impingement on their boundaries." These cases demonstrate that boundary rigidity interferes with the ability to incorporate positive experiences, which can lead to the chronic experience of emptiness.

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Article Citation

Gilkey, R. (1987). Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis. XIII, 1985. Psychoanal. Q., 56:734-735

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