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Wangh, M. (1994). Journal of Social Work and Policy in Israel. V-Vi (Special Issue), 1992: Discussion. Ilany Kogan. Pp. 115-121.. Psychoanal Q., 63:612-613.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: Journal of Social Work and Policy in Israel. V-Vi (Special Issue), 1992: Discussion. Ilany Kogan. Pp. 115-121.

(1994). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 63:612-613

Journal of Social Work and Policy in Israel. V-Vi (Special Issue), 1992: Discussion. Ilany Kogan. Pp. 115-121.

Martin Wangh

Kogan singles out the phenomenon of a "two level reality." She believes that the "second generation," when they are very young, in their own lives "re-enact" the parent's trauma as an "archaic, preverbal memory since they have remained unconsciously fused with an archaic object, the suffering parent." They lean on their parent's partial recovery in ordinary life, while representations of the traumatized parents may surface later. Kogan points to a distinction to be made between a persecutory facet of guilt, where the lost objects are perceived as threatening and punishing, and depressive guilt composed of "sorrow, concern for the object and the self, nostalgia and responsibility." This latter guilt (stressed by Hillel Klein) is the sign of re-entrance of the survivors into civilization. Kogan thinks that persecutory

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guilt is connected to fantasies linked to the parents' traumatic past, while depressive guilt is more reality-oriented and linked to the survivor's attempts at sublimation and separation. Kogan observes that while some of the pathological symptomatology of the second generation seems psychotic, these individuals hold on to good object relationships and show remarkable ego strength. The pathological manifestations are due to a partial permeability of their ego boundaries (described by Grubrich-Simitis in 1984). These second generation patients act out traumatic aspects of their parents' life story as if these belonged to their own. There is a confusion between self-object, past and present, fantasy and reality. Actions substitute for mourning. Kogan is convinced "that the particular violence of the projective identification process in the cases of children of Holocaust survivors is generally related to infantile experiences during which the child has been subjected to violent projective identification on the part of his traumatized parents." Kogan praises Pines's great capacity for empathy and sincerity which reconfirms "the truly human dimension which, in this century, has been cast in doubt by the crime of the Holocaust."

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Article Citation

Wangh, M. (1994). Journal of Social Work and Policy in Israel. V-Vi (Special Issue), 1992. Psychoanal. Q., 63:612-613

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