It is always useful to review an article’s bibliography and references to get a deeper understanding of the psychoanalytic concepts and theoretical framework in it.
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Bouchard, M. (1994). Canadian Journal of Psychoanalysis/revue Canadienne De Psychanalyse. I, Number 1, 1993: Contemporary Considerations Influencing Psychoanalytic Interventions. Douglas H. Frayn. Pp. 7-25.. Psychoanal Q., 63:817-818.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: Canadian Journal of Psychoanalysis/revue Canadienne De Psychanalyse. I, Number 1, 1993: Contemporary Considerations Influencing Psychoanalytic Interventions. Douglas H. Frayn. Pp. 7-25.
Interpretation of unconscioustransference impulses and libidinal repression remains the cornerstone of classical psychoanalytic interpretation. According to Frayn,
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there is increasing support for a preinterpretive phase, and preference given to nontransference interpretations prior to an adequate development of the narcissistic patient's self-reflective capacity. By contrast, early interpretations of drive/conflict elements within regressive transferences, rather than leading to introspection, have been noted frequently to lead to "defensive unrelatedness" between analyst and analysand. For self psychologists, pathological narcissistic deficits are based on thwarted development and require involvement, affirmation, validation, and idealization by the selfobject (analyst). Some analysts feel it necessary to extend empathic listening to include a complementary, sympathetic, "proud parent" stance. Frayn believes these often appear as transference-gratifying, re-educational psychotherapeutic interventions. The analyst should not attempt to approximate the infantcaregiver, except to sustain and acknowledge the selfobjectfantasy within the patient. Analytic intervention should help the patient express her or his troubled intrasubjective world symbolically through words rather than through symptomatic behavior. Analysts of any orientation could benefit from the appreciation and therapeutic use of the processes of empathy, intuition, projective identification, and externalization which seem to be involved in the creation of the various intersubjective regression phenomena. If interpretation brings about insight through structural changes, other dynamic reorganizations and significant ego integrations take place via affectclarification, abreaction, affirmation, suggestion, and reassurance. Empathic statements, including validation, sympathy, compassion, even praise, may be internalized as self-confirmatory reactions. More than just temporary auxiliary ego support, these interactions can encourage the progression of object constancy and self-soothing. The expanded role of subjectivism—within both the patient and analyst—is stressed. Identification and exploration of shared analytic phenomena facilitate conscious reconstructions rather than repetitious living out of regressive transferences.
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Bouchard, M. (1994). Canadian Journal of Psychoanalysis/revue Canadienne De Psychanalyse. I, Number 1, 1993. Psychoanal. Q., 63:817-818