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Gray, S.H. (1996). Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic. LVII, 1993. The Autonomous Self. John D. Sutherland. Pp. 3-32.. Psychoanal Q., 65:675-676.

(1996). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 65:675-676

Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic. LVII, 1993. The Autonomous Self. John D. Sutherland. Pp. 3-32.

Review by:
Sheila Hafter Gray

Freud's early use of the term Ich indicates that he intended it to convey the special complexity of each individual's self. This richness was lost when Ich was translated as ego, a term that later came into use as the name of a psychic structure. The British school of psychoanalysts continued to elaborate Freud's initial view of self and drew attention to the role of early mother-child interactions in fostering the development of an integrated concept of self, while Hartmann focused on the functions of an autonomous ego. Khan and Erikson merged these theoretical lines into the notion of ego identity. Sutherland believes psychoanalytic theory is incomplete without a holistic sense of self. He suggests that the autonomous self may be understood as the successor of the organizing principle in the embryo.

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