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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Freedman, N. Steingart, I. (1975). Kinesic Internalization and Language Construction. Psychoanal. Contemp. Sci., 4(1):355-403.

(1975). Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Science, 4(1):355-403

Kinesic Internalization and Language Construction

Norbert Freedman, Ph.D. and Irving Steingart, Ph.D.

Let us start with a commonplace situation. A person enters a room, sees many unfamiliar faces, and as he begins to talk, folds his hands and fidgets restlessly, one finger upon another. This example of “embarrassed hands,” as Ferenczi calls it (1914), signifies a whole range of experiences. The person's attention is split, partially focused on the strange surroundings and partially upon his bodily discomfort, his imagery is confused and, most probably, the organization of his utterances is fragmented or poorly planned. Take another example. A person is engaged in a heated discussion. As he makes a point, he punctuates his utterances with motions of the hands like a baton, neatly matched to the rhythm and content of speech. Here again the actions seem to reveal a matrix of inner experiences, an alert state of consciousness, a close and unified focus upon his thoughts, and a relatively succinct articulation evident in both his choice and ordering of words.

These examples are chosen to document that body movements “live” in two environments.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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