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Klug, G. Lacruz, M.E. Emeny, R.T. Häfner, S. Ladwig, K. Huber, D. (2014). Aging without Depression: A Cross-Sectional Study. Psychodyn. Psych., 42(1):5-22.

(2014). Psychodynamic Psychiatry, 42(1):5-22

Aging without Depression: A Cross-Sectional Study

Guenther Klug, M.D., Maria Elena Lacruz, Ph.D., Rebecca Thwing Emeny, Ph.D., M.P.H., Sibylle Häfner, M.D., Karl-Heinz Ladwig, Ph.D., M.D. and Dorothea Huber, Ph.D., M.D.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyze the association between secure attachment style, loneliness, and social network as risk factors for late-life depression.

Methods: This cross-sectional study examined 969 subjects of the KORA-Age study. We applied the Relationship-Specific Attachment Scales for Adults (Beziehungsspezifische Bindungsskalen für Erwachsene, BBE), the UCLA Loneliness Scale, and the Social Network Index (SNI). Depression was operationalized through the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) and/or use of antidepressants. Logistic-regression models were calculated, sex-stratified, and controlled for age and living status.

Results: For men, lower depression scores were associated with higher attachment security scores (OR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.15-0.44) and not reporting feelings of loneliness (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.14-0.53). For women, independent determinants of not having late life depression consist of not feeling lonely (OR = 0.22,95% CI = 0.13-0.38).

Discussion: Loneliness is a risk factor for late life depression in women and men, attachment style is a risk factor more for men, while social network size is not a risk factor.

[This is a summary excerpt from the full text of the journal article. The full text of the document is available to journal subscribers on the publisher's website here.]

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