Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
Tip: To zoom in or out on PEP-Web…

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

Are you having difficulty reading an article due its font size? In order to make the content on PEP-Web larger (zoom in), press Ctrl (on Windows) or ⌘Command (on the Mac) and the plus sign (+). Press Ctrl (on Windows) or ⌘Command (on the Mac) and the minus sign (-) to make the content smaller (zoom out). To go back to 100% size (normal size), press Ctrl (⌘Command on the Mac) + 0 (the number 0).

Another way on Windows: Hold the Ctrl key and scroll the mouse wheel up or down to zoom in and out (respectively) of the webpage. Laptop users may use two fingers and separate them or bring them together while pressing the mouse track pad.

Safari users: You can also improve the readability of you browser when using Safari, with the Reader Mode: Go to PEP-Web. Right-click the URL box and select Settings for This Website, or go to Safari > Settings for This Website. A large pop-up will appear underneath the URL box. Look for the header that reads, “When visiting this website.” If you want Reader mode to always work on this site, check the box for “Use Reader when available.”

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Michels, R. (1988). Commentary. Psychoanal. Inq., 8(4):568-577.

(1988). Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 8(4):568-577


Robert Michels, M.D.

The title of the conference, “The Intrapsychic and Interpersonal Dimensions: An Unresolved Dilemma,” leads me to observe that, in fact, true intellectual dilemmas are never resolved; they just fade away, replaced by new and more interesting dilemmas. We have seen that this earlier dilemma no longer has much heat attached to it, although there are still residual loyalties to the leaders who bore the banners in the former disputes. More important, a series of new dilemmas have moved to center stage and now occupy our attention.

One theme of the panel offers an illustration. Mitchell, in his brilliant summary of the historical background of the dilemma, warns us to be careful not to read too casually. He points out two important things about Sullivan's interpersonal model. First, that Sullivan was fighting not with Freud but rather with Kraepelin. The “interpersonal” paradigm was designed as an antidote to the brain-constitutional diathesis that was the popular alternative. Second, that Sullivan did modify one element of Freud. In shifting from the centrality of an “inner drive program” of psychic development to an “environmental experience and secondary internalization” model of psychic development, Sullivan was bothered by Freud's preoccupation with the drive origin of mental life and modified this aspect of Freud's theory in his psychology.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2020, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.