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Druck, A.B. (1994). Multiple Models and the Psychoanalytic Stance. Psychoanal. Inq., 14(2):243-260.

(1994). Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 14(2):243-260

Multiple Models and the Psychoanalytic Stance

Andrew B. Druck, Ph.D.

The connection between psychoanalytic theories of pathogenesis and corresponding notions of the optimal analytic stance has always been extremely close. Even within Freud's work, his conception of the analyst's stance shifted as his theory developed. In “Studies on Hysteria” (1893-1895), Freud emphasized the role of repressed memories in causing neurotic symptoms. He stressed the mutative factor of the analyst's “personal influence” (p. 283) in overcoming the forces of repression. This influence extended to Freud's laying on of hands to encourage the patient to remember. Freud saw the analyst's task as helping the patient recall pathogenic memories. As these were recalled and expressed, with the resulting catharsis, the patient improved.

Over time, Freud's focus shifted to the complex manner in which early childhood experience is mediated and transformed through conflict between internal structures. Freud's theory of why someone became neurotic was accompanied by great elaboration of how someone remained neurotic. Attention moved to the process of neurosis in addition to its genesis. Freud's conception of the proper analytic stance also shifted.

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