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Frank, G. (2003). Triebe and Their Vicissitudes: Freud's Theory of Motivation Reconsidered. Psychoanal. Psychol., 20(4):691-697.

(2003). Psychoanalytic Psychology, 20(4):691-697

Triebe and Their Vicissitudes: Freud's Theory of Motivation Reconsidered

George Frank, Ph.D.

Although Freud's concept of instinct (as in “Instincts and Their Vicissitudes”; 1915/1964b) seems outmoded and has been found to have many conceptual faults, it can still be found in contemporary overviews of what are considered to be significant psychoanalytic constructs (e.g., Psychoanalysis: The Major Concepts; B. E. Moore & B. D. Fine, 1995). The purpose of this essay was twofold: to make the argument that the term instinct (or drive) should be expunged from any psychoanalyst's lexicon and to introduce a new paradigm, in terms of both form (the multidimensionality of that which can explain the behavior of humans) and content (needs, affects, beliefs, etc.) instead of instincts.

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