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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Pincus, D. Freeman, W. Modell, A. (2007). A Neurobiological Model of Perception: Considerations for Transference. Psychoanal. Psychol., 24(4):623-640.

(2007). Psychoanalytic Psychology, 24(4):623-640

A Neurobiological Model of Perception: Considerations for Transference

David Pincus, DMH, Walter Freeman, M.D. and Arnold Modell, M.D.

Transference is a key concept in psychoanalysis, distinguishing the analytic treatment from other forms of psychotherapy. In this essay, the authors place transference into the context of a general psychology of human functioning and link it to the neurobiology of perception. The authors briefly review the literature within and outside of psychoanalysis, define transference through the lens of perception, and propose that it is ubiquitous in humans. When not impaired, transference is an adaptive ego function that emerges, along with countertransference, in the context of any interpersonal situation of significant emotional import. The authors draw on W. Freeman's (2003, 2004) research on olfaction, which has since been replicated in other sensory modalities, for a neurodynamic basis for their model of perception and describe how transference may be thought of as an evolved form of it. The authors’ view is that transference is a hierarchically integrated perceptual modality of a higher order, although it depends on the same neurodynamic processes as those found in each sensory modality.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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