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Gazzillo, F. Gorman, B.S. Waldron, S. Stukenberg, K. Genova, F. Ristucci, C. Faccini, F. Mazza, C. (2018). The Components of Psychoanalysis: Factor Analyses of Process Measures of 27 Fully Recorded Psychoanalyses. Psychoanal. Psychol., 35(2):184-195.

(2018). Psychoanalytic Psychology, 35(2):184-195

The Components of Psychoanalysis: Factor Analyses of Process Measures of 27 Fully Recorded Psychoanalyses

Francesco Gazzillo, Ph.D., Bernard S. Gorman, Ph.D., Sherwood Waldron, M.D., Karl Stukenberg, Ph.D., Federica Genova, Ph.D., Chiara Ristucci, MSc, Filippo Faccini, Ph.D. and Cristina Mazza, MSc

In an empirical study of psychoanalytic processes, the authors identify therapist, patient, and interaction factors from 2 instruments totaling 31 items based on clinicians' evaluation of 540 sessions from 27 completely recorded psychoanalyses. The 2 instruments, developed over 30 years studying recorded psychoanalyses, are the Analytic Process Scales (APS; Waldron, Scharf, Hurst, Firestein, & Burton, 2004b) and the Dynamic Interaction Scales (DIS; Waldron, Gazzillo, Genova, & Lingiardi, 2013). This article reports the authors' simplification of the complex patterns produced by the items via factor analysis. Guided by past process-outcome literature (Lambert, 2013), therapist, patient, and interaction items were factor analyzed in 3 separate analyses. Three patient factors emerged: the patient's experience of the world, the patient's experience of the analyst, and a factor the authors call patient dynamic competence. Components contributed by the therapist reduced to therapist's relational competence and therapist's dynamic competence. Interaction items produced just 1 factor, interaction quality. The authors describe the items contributing to each of these 6 factors and the correlations among these factors to permit the reader to better understand how they interact. Moreover, 2 second-order factors emerged which show what the authors describe as a parallel process between patient and analyst, allowing for a conceptualization of the intricate process of analyst and patient working together, with differing foci, in a potentially mutually enriching way.

[This is a summary excerpt from the full text of the journal article. The full text of the document is available to journal subscribers on the publisher's website here.]

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