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Hart, B. (1994). Exile and Bereavement. Psychoanal. Psychother., 8(3):227-241.

(1994). Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, 8(3):227-241

Exile and Bereavement

Barbara Hart

In this paper I describe the disruptions of external and internal reality in the experience of exile, the interplay of these, and the impact of bereavement in the context of trauma. I consider the factors which disturb the mourning process in such circumstances. I draw upon the psychoanalytic literature, particularly that related to the Holocaust and other ‘man-made disasters’, and upon my own clinical material. Particular attention is drawn to the importance of acknowledgment and containment, and to awareness of the symbolic value of traditional mourning practices.

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