1. The Dynamics of the “Transference.” prof. sigmund freud.
2. Homosexuality and Paranoia. prof, R. morichau beauchant.
3. From the Categories of Symbolism. herbert silberer.
4. Utilization of Headache as a Sexual Symbol. J. sadger.
1. Dynamics of Transference.—Freud discusses the play of mental
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forces which bring about the phenomenon of “transference” in the psycho-analytic treatment, taking up such points as whence the phenomenon arises, why it is greater in neurotics, why it causes the greatest “resistances” in the treatment, why it is an indispensable part of every such treatment, at the same time calling attention to the fact that there may be negative as well as positive transference and that toward the same person (ambivalence).
2. Homosexuality and Paranoia.—Beauchant reports the case of a man of forty-seven, married, with three children, a teacher by profession, of blameless habits and strongly religious, who developed typical paranoiac delusions. The history which the patient gave clearly showed the homosexual tendency breaking through the repression in the form of self-reproaches which had been projected onto others. The report is only given in outline as confirming Freud's and Ferenczi's work on the same subject.
3. Headache and Sexual Symbolism.—Sadger points out that many headaches of purely functional nature when found in hysterics or other psychoneurotics can be proved to be of psychogenic origin. He cites several interesting cases from his own observation to substantiate his opinion and shows how different types of headache often give symbolic expression to sexual repressions of childhood. He also refers to the quite general use of the head as a sexual symbol both among healthy and neurotic individuals.
(Vol. 2, No. 5)
1. Unconscious Manipulation of Numbers. ernest jones.
2. The Relations of the Neurotic to “Time.” wilhelm stekel.
3. Introjection, Projection and Sympathy. sandor kovacs.
1. Unconscious Manipulation of Numbers.—Jones calls attention to the fact that numbers as well as words and ideas are subject to unconscious manipulation. He illustrates his point by quoting from the analysis of a case of obsessional neurosis in a man of twenty-four and shows clearly how certain numbers and plays on these numbers, additions, subtractions, inversions, etc., were -utilized to symbolize the mother-complex from which the patient suffered. He points out that the mechanisms of this process are very similar to those which Freud has proved characteristic of dream formation.
2. Relations of the Neurotic to “Time.”—In a very interesting little article, Stekel sketches the curious but characteristic ways in which the neurotic treats time and its problems. He says that in the neurosis the mental boundary land where fact and fancy meet is
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greatly enlarged, i. e., conscious reality and unconscious phantasy merge much more completely and extensively than in health. The neurotic finds himself impelled to stay in the land of fancy, oblivious of time and its effects. For the unconscious there is no time and when reality refuses the longed-for things, the neurotic flies to the land of phantasy for consolation. The extreme of this is the psychosis. Stekel makes this plain by citing numerous apt illustrations from his practice mostly from the realm of the obsessions. Besides the tendency to annul time, to wish that he were back in those happy days, the neurotic plays with time in other ways; he is much concerned with the flight of time, with the problem of age and the relative ages of himself and his parents, thoughts of death, etc.
3. Introjection, Projection and Sympathy.—This article is continued into the next number of the Zentralblatt and will be abstracted with that number.
(Vol. 2, No. 6)
1. Neurotic Maladies Classified According to the Conditions which Cause the Outbreak. prof. sigmund freud.
2. Psycho-Analytic Investigation and Treatment of Manic-Depressive Insanity and Allied Conditions. dr. karl abraham.
3. Introjection, Projection and (Esthetic) Sympathy. dr. sandor kovacs.
1. Neurotic Maladies.—Freud discusses the conditions influential in causing the outbreak of a neurosis in a predisposed person and finds it convenient from a practical standpoint to divide these into four classes or types:
1. When external conditions constitute a denial of the gratification of the “libido,” “The individual was healthy so long as his need of love was gratified by a real object in the external world; the neurosis appears as soon as this object is withdrawn without the finding of a substitute.” This type is especially concerned with the subject of abstinence.
2. The second type is less obvious to superficial examination but is revealed by a study of the complexes after the manner of the Zurich School. In this type, the pathological agency is not in the denials of the external world but in the inability of the individual to adapt himself to external conditions; in the course of development the libido has become fixed upon some object from which the person is unable to free it and direct it toward the normal object of real life. Hence the neurosis comes about as a result of this failure to adapt to reality. We may say that the first type is characterized by a damming
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up of libido from external causes (no outlet provided), the second type by a damming up of libido from internal causes (fixation upon some object in early life from which it cannot be freed by the individual unaided).
3. The third type, Freud calls an exaggeration of the second, an inhibition of development. The libido has never left the infantile fixations; the individual falls ill as soon as the irresponsible period of childhood is past and never attains a phase of complete health, i. e., unhampered power to act and enjoy.
4. The fourth type has to do with what may be termed a quantitative change in the libido; at certain periods, as puberty and the menopause, biological processes of which we know little, there occurs an increase in the libido which finds the ordinary means of gratification relatively inadequate to carry it off, resulting in many of the same neurotic conditions which the absolute inadequacy of Type I showed.
Freud says that these four types have no great theoretical value, but that they show different ways of origin of a certain pathological constellation in the mental household, namely, the damming up of libido against which the ego cannot guard itself without injury.
2. Manic-Depressive Insanity.—Abraham presents six cases of manic-depressive insanity and closely related depressive conditions which he has treated by psycho-analysis. Two of these were light manic-depressive insanity (cyclothymia), a third, a periodic depressive condition with typical melancholic phenomena, two others, early depressive psychoses and the sixth, a severe, persistent depressive psychosis in a man of forty-five.
Because of the duty of discretion, Abraham is able to publish in detail only one of the analyses and this is compressed into small space. This case was one of the cyclothymics, a man in the thirties who had suffered at first from periodical depressions dating back to his school years to which had been added from his twenty-eighth year on, a manic phase. These phases alternated. Only a few of the points brought out can be mentioned here. Prominent among these are a precocious and intense development of the sexual life followed by onanism, a turning away from reality and excessive repression. Home life was unpleasant and his relations with father and brothers unfriendly. Especially clearly presented is the patient's relation to the love-hate constellation and the powerful effect which this had on his mental development. The similarity between this psychosis and the obsessional neurosis is pointed out; also certain paranoic features such as projection. The repression of the sadistic component of the
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sexual instinct is shown to have been very influential. The “fear of poverty” complex is also well worked out and its relation to the identification of libido and money emphasized. Another interesting feature is the exposition of the fact that both phases of the malady could arise from the same complexes: in one phase (depressive) the patient is overcome, inhibited by his complexes; in the other (manic) he seeks to free himself from the complexes, to ignore them as it were. Abraham touches on the question of why the manic attacks did not appear until the patient was twenty-eight years old and believes that it was because of a delayed psychosexual puberty. The therapeutic results in this case were excellent. Not only was the patient freed from his inhibitions and suffering but rendered capable of regular work.
The other cases are only reported in outline. The other cyclo-thymic was not analyzed far enough for therapeutic results but showed a similar mental mechanism to number one. The third case (melancholic depression) was much improved, although the analysis was interrupted by external conditions before it was completed. Cases four and five could not be analyzed because of external difficulties but showed that they were favorably influenced by the short period of analysis. Case six ended, as Abraham expresses it, in “an extraordinarily beautiful result.” Complete cure after six months treatment. Unfortunately, because of the duty to the patient, this analysis could not be published.
This article is very suggestive of future results and justifies Abraham's concluding remark that “psycho-analysis seems about to free psychiatry from the nightmare of therapeutic nihilism.”
3. Introjection, Projection and (Esthetic) Sympathy.—In an interesting article of philosophical nature, Kovacs seeks to elucidate the psychological processes involved in the phenomena of esthetic sympathy, i. e., the emotions aroused in a person gazing on a picture, listening to music, reading poetry, looking at a statue or building, etc., and also emotions in the minds of the creators of these objects (painters, composers, poets, sculptors, architects). He finds that the former process is closely related if not almost identical with the mechanism which Ferenczi has described as “introjection” the onlooker, listener, reader, etc., identifies himself with the object of his attention and seeks to feel what the object (picture, music, poem) portrays. This process is best illustrated by an example from the field of mental pathology, namely, in the hysteric who seeks to bring all possible objects into relation to the ego-complex. The second process, the attempt of the artist to embody in his creation his own emotions, is
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akin to the mechanism described by Freud as “projection”; again an example from psychopathology makes this clearer: the paranoic attempts to attribute to others ideas which have originated in his own mind. Thus we may say the mental processes of the paranoic and artist have much in common, both seek to create in the external world ideas or emotions which had their origin in their own minds. The hysteric introjects, the paranoic projects. The public introjects, the artist projects.
The author brings up the interesting question of how far these two traits may be mingled in one personality and what the results of this would be. Without answering this in detail, he calls attention to the fact that artists are usually people of strong individuality who are much better at creating works of art than at appreciating the art of others. A further analogy to these two processes is pointed out in the sexuality of man and woman: man projects, creates, is active; woman introjects, conceives, is passive.
(Vol. 2, No. 7)
1. Masks of Homosexuality. wilhelm stekel.
2. Folk-Psychological Parallels to Infantile Sexual Theories. otto rank.
3. Investigations in Lecanomancy. herbert silberer.
1. Masks of Homosexuality.—“The deeper we penetrate into the mental mechanisms of the neuroses and psychoses, the more important appears the activity of homosexual instinctive forces. The differences between the results of psychoanalytic investigation and the customary anamnesis nowhere show so plainly as in the statements of the neurotic concerning homosexuality. No other component of the sexual instinct admits of so much repression and becomes so foreign to consciousness.” Following this introductory statement, Stekel proceeds to point out some of the most frequent masks which cover repressed homosexual tendencies. All neuroticsymptoms are the results of a compromise and conceal on one side as much as they reveal on the other. The homosexualist would unite in one object as many as possible of his instinctive tendencies. His ideal would be a being which is at once man, woman and child (and perhaps animal and angel). Thus, male homosexualists seek women with certain masculine attributes such as large stature, flat breasts, coarse features, deep voice, etc., while female homosexualists seek men with feminine attributes. The same applies to mental characteristics, as women who are aggressive, athletic and of masculine temperament and the opposite feminine traits in effeminate men.
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Less obvious is the inclination of certain men toward old women because age tends to develop a more masculine appearance. Pathological jealousy also betrays strong homosexuality. One party is jealous because he or she has an unconscious love for the disturbing person. Another homosexual type is the person who is always seeking an ideal (person) which is never found because of bisexual traits demanded.
Certain external signs betray strong homosexual tendencies as men who suddenly go in for sport, pugilism, sun-baths, etc., in order to see unclothed men. Similarly, women sometimes have their hair cut short, wear military coats and hats and go in for women's rights in order to give vent to their homosexual tendencies, i. e., play the man and love a woman. Other signs are the adoption of a masculine pseudonym by a woman, the marriage of a man to a woman because he is in love with her brother, the preference of an artist for masculine figures, etc., etc.
2. Folk-Psychology and Infantile Sexual Theories.—The author shows that many of the infantile sexual theories which Freud has pointed out as typical products of childish mental life while the child is still ignorant of the true facts of birth and impregnation, can also be found in legends, myths and saga of primitive peoples of various races. In other words, the childhood of the race produced many of the same phantasies which psycho-analysis has revealed in the childhood of the individual. Rank illustrates his point with a wealth of material taken from the most diverse sources (Hebrew, Egyptian, Greek, Indian, Mexican, etc.).
3. Lecanomancy.—This article runs through four numbers of the Zentralblatt and will be abstracted when concluded.
(Vol. 2, No. 8)
1. A Complicated Ceremonial of Neurotic Women. dr. karl abraham.
2. Folk-Psychological Parallels to Infantile Sexual Theories. otto rank.
3. Lecanomantic Investigation (Continuation). herbert silberer.
1. Complicated Ceremonial of Neurotic Women.—Abraham reports a curious ceremonial of obsessive character carried out by two different women among his patients. This consisted of having everything about their persons and night clothing painfully neat and orderly when they retired for the night, the hair neatly arranged, etc. The reason which the patients gave for carrying out this ceremonial was that they might die suddenly in the night. The analyses revealed
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deeper unconscious motives in repressed incestuous wishes toward the fathers.
2. Folk-Psychology and Infantile Sexual Theories.—This is the conclusion of an article reviewed in the previous number; it gives many more examples.
3. Lecomany (continued).
(Vol. 2, No. 9)
1. Suggestions to the Physician Practicing Psycho-Analysis. sig. freud.
2. Illustrated Dreams. dr. marcinowski.
3. Lecanomantic Investigation. (Continuation.) herbert silberer.
1. Suggestions to Physicians.—Freud presents here for the benefit of those practicing psycho-analysis some of the technical rules which he has developed in his own practice:
(a) For keeping clearly in mind the countless details of names, dates, associations, etc., which the patients present daily, he recommends that the physician refrain from trying to look for anything in particular and from focusing his attention upon any particular point and devote a calm, uniform, unforced attention to all that is said. In this way, the physician saves himself much fatigue and is in a better position to notice the important points in the patient's associations.
(b) As a general rule, it is not wise to make notes during the consultation, because it acts as an inhibition upon the patient's associations and distracts the physician's attention. An exception to this rule may be made in case of dates, bits of dreams or the like. Freud says, however, that he is accustomed not to do this, but to make all his notes in the evening after the day's work is over.
(c) The demand for exact scientific case records should not be allowed to cause the physician to violate rule b. The notes made afterwards are exact enough for all practical purposes and much more advantageous to the treatment.
(d) Although the analysis affords opportunity for both investigation and treatment, it is never good for the therapeutic outcome to direct the analysis with the end of investigation in view. The analysis should be allowed to take the direction which the material indicates and only after the treatment is ended should the physician allow himself to reconstruct and consider the case from the purely scientific standpoint.
(e) The psycho-analyst should follow the example of the surgeon
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by freeing himself as completely as possible from emotional interest in the case, thus giving his intellectual powers full play.
(f) Just as the physician demands of the patient that he let his associations flow freely without any guidance or critique so the physician himself must receive the material presented without criticism on his part. In other words, he must know his own complexes so that he will be in position to listen to everything in an unbiased manner. To attain this end, it is almost imperative that every physician who intends really practicing psycho-analysis should submit to an analysis himself that he may be aware of his own unconscious forces. The physician after once having this outside help can keep track of his own complexes by analyzing his own dreams.
(g) The physician must not allow the patient to gain an intimate knowledge of his own life, since this may lead to suggestion and render difficult the freeing of the transference. As Freud aptly puts it: “The physician should be intransparent to the one being analyzed and like a mirror show only what is shown to him.”
(h) In the matter of educating the patient and urging him to sublimate his instinctive forces, the physician must be on his guard. He may easily urge the patient to attempt more in the way of sublimation than his constitution will permit.
(i) As to how much the patient may aid the treatment by intellectual effort, no general rule can be laid down. The personality must decide. Urging the patient to concentrate his memory on certain periods of his life does not help much. Reading of psycho-analytic articles is also not to be recommended. Rather, the patient should be taught to learn from his own case and give his associations free play. Freud further warns strongly against courting the support and agreement of parents and relatives by giving them articles on psychoanalysis to read.
2. Illustrated Dreams.—This is a contribution to the subject of dreaminterpretation with especial reference to certain dreams which patients bring accompanied by drawings or sketches.
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Payne, C.R. (1914). Zentralblatt Für Psychoanalyse. Psychoanal. Rev., 1(2):229-237