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Payne, C.R. (1914). Zentralblatt Für Psychoanalyse. Psychoanal. Rev., 1(3):347-350.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: Zentralblatt Für Psychoanalyse

(1914). Psychoanalytic Review, 1(3):347-350

Zentralblatt Für Psychoanalyse

C. R. PayneAuthor Information

(Vol. 2, Nos. 10, 11)

1.   Contribution to the Psychology of So-called Dipsomania. dr.

2.   otto juliusburger.

3.   Concerning a Ceremonial before Going to Sleep. dr. wilhelm stekel.

4.   Lecanomantic Investigations. herbert silberer.

5.   Concerning Transitory Symptom Formations during the Analysis. dr. S. ferenczi.

1.Psychology of So-called Dipsomania.—In qualifying the term, dipsomania, by the adjective “so-called,” the author wishes to indicate that he does not consider dipsomania a definite, sharp-cut clinical picture. He surveys briefly the prevailing views concerning the condition held by Kraepelin, Gaupp, Aschafifenburg, Ziehen, Wernicke and others and seems to agree most nearly with Wernicke who holds that a real periodicity is demonstrable in only a few cases, that the attempt to classify the condition with the periodic manias has been unsuccessful, that there is an interruption of the continuity of the consciousness of the personality; certain hypervalent ideas act on the personality so that a changed and lower grade character results.

Having thus sketched the conceptions of dipsomania, Juliusburger describes and discusses a case which came under his observation: The patient was a young married man who had the habit of going to a certain restaurant, always the same one, kept by an uncle of his wife,

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drinking beer and wine a large part of the night and then going with the uncle to another place where they further drank and caroused. These attacks usually lasted a night and a day and sometimes half of the next night and varied in frequency from twice in eight days to every four weeks or longer. The condition had lasted about five years. Patient had been married two and a half years when he came to the institution. Concerning the man with whom he went on these drinking sprees, the patient said: “I am fearfully fond of going there, am quite crazy about the fellow—I am not a pervert—the inn-keeper has been there five years. I have gone there, felt myslf attracted.” During the drunken state, the patient was more inclined to masturbate than to have normal sexual intercourse. The author points out that the phenomena seem to center around an underlying homosexuality. Although the man was heterosexual, still he had a strong homosexual component; when this component found a suitable object, it was strong enough to break through the repression and find gratification, the alcohol acting as an agent for breaking down the repression and sublimation.

2.Ceremonial before Going to Sleep.—The author describes in considerable detail the complicated obsessional ceremonial which one of his neurotic patients felt compelled to go through every night before retiring and also at other times of the day. These obsessions were largely in connection with excretory functions but also included such things as making sure that doors and windows were closed, the light turned out, etc. He also gives the analysis of the various acts and traces them back to anxiety over ideas of pregnancy, infanticide, virginity, etc. He emphasizes the points that (i) Every obsessional act contains a death clause; (2) every obsessional act fulfills an infantile imperative; (3) every obsessional act serves to unite mentally, anxiety and doubt; (4) the obsessional acts are carried out by religious motives, they contain prayers which seem fused with criminal complexes by means of neurotic compromises to form mental symptoms.

3.Lecanomantic Investigations.—In this number, Silberer concludes his article on the psychoanalytic invesigation of lecanomancy which has run through four numbers of the Zentralblatt. Lecanomancy is a method of divination by means of a suitable person looking into a bowl half filled with water, on the surface of which the indefinite images of candle flames are reflected (in Silberer's experiments, three candles were used). The person who acted as medium was a young Jewish girl in her early twenties. After each group of visions reported, Silberer used free associations to find the meanings of the same. These investigations are very interesting as showing how the divination are merely the results of the medium's own complexes

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and are well worked out although the series was interrupted by external conditions before Silberer could complete them. The close relationship between the visions and dreams is well brought out. The visions and analyses cannot be followed in detail here.

4.Transitory Symptom Formations during the Analysis.—(Transitory conversion, substitution, illusion, hallucination, “character regression” and “displacements of expression.”) In a few pages crammed with valuable hints for the practicing psychoanalyst, Fer-enczi describes some of the temporary or transitory symptoms which patients develop in the course of their analyses and tells how he overcomes and dissipates the same. One patient developed a sudden toothache, another a tremendous drowsiness when the analysis struck unpleasant ideas. These symptoms promptly disappeared when the cause of them was made clear to the patient. Sudden mental suffering is often expressed by temporary cardiac pains, emotion of exasperation by bitter taste on the tongue, cares by pressure in the head. Temporary asthenia of the whole musculature often appears as a symbol of moral weakness or unwillingness to explain an act.

Transient obsessional phenomena can also appear during the analysis: One obsessional patient, during free associations, suddenly developed a questioning as to why the letters w-i-n-d-o-w should stand for the object, window. No amount of explanation could free him from this question to which he continually recurred instead of proceeding with the associations. Ferenczi discovered that this symptom disguised the patient's disbelief in the analyst's previous interpretation of a symbol. In exceptional cases, hallucinations may be formed: One of his patients, when the analysis reached unpleasant things, would suddenly drop the associations and produce true hallucinations of anxious content, struggles with wild beasts, scenes of violence, etc. These proved to be a means for preventing certain unconscious material from becoming conscious.

Illusions of special senses, especially smell, also develop frequently. Temporary regressions of character, as for example, to onanism, may occur in the analysis. This is especially apt to occur when the patient feels unsympathetically treated. Displacements of expression are illustrated by yawning for sobbing, coughing for speaking something unpleasant or sometimes for laughter. All of the transitory symptoms enumerated afford the analyst valuable data regarding the resistance and transference, and upon the correct interpretation of these often depends the success of the analysis. These symptoms further afford a glimpse of the mechanism whereby neurotic symptoms in general are caused; when repressed complexes threaten to

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become conscious, if the censor is unable to keep them repressed, it may divert a part of the energy along new paths to a distorted expression. The author aptly calls these transitory symptoms, “neuroses in miniature.”

(Vol. 2, No. 12)

1.   Three Romances in Numbers. dr. J. marcinowski.

2.   Experimental Dreams. dr. phil. karl schrotter (Vienna).

1.Romances in Numbers.—As the title indicates, this article gives three illustrations of unconscious manipulation of numbers. The subject of the first dream was a woman who as a child had been extremely fond of playing mentally with numbers, assigning a number to each letter of the alphabet, a-1, b-2, etc., and then spelling out words in numbers. In the dream reported and in the interpretation of this which the patient herself gave during hypnosis, we have a wonderfully good picture of this strange phenomenon which is by no means so rare as one is inclined to think at first. The patient depicted in numbers her most important complexes and greatest conflicts and even showed an assimilation of some of the unconscious elements. The other two dreams reported are similar to the first with the exception that the patients had not been accustomed to play with numbers, consciously at least. They display the same mechanisms as the first.

2.Experimental Dreams.—This is a short preliminary sketch of experiments which the author has conducted in causing dreams artificially by hypnotic commands and studying the resultant productions. The results are very interesting and also important as substantiating many of the facts derived by Freud from observation. The method of experiment consists in giving to the person in hypnotic sleep, the command to dream something definite, from three to seven ideas being given as subjects to dream about. One of the clearest confirmations of Freud's views was the fact that when the command was to dream something grossly sexual, the resulting dream was expressed symbolically; in other words, there was the “manifest content” from which the “latent content” must be interpreted. It is expressly stated that the subject of the experiment was ignorant of Freud's investigations and had no suspicion of the meaning of the dreams. Other phenomena which could be observed were the effect of clang association, the dream instigators from daily life, the effect of bodily irritations and the action of transference. It would seem that the method promised much help in elucidating the problem of dreams.

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Article Citation

Payne, C.R. (1914). Zentralblatt Für Psychoanalyse. Psychoanal. Rev., 1(3):347-350

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