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Payne, C.R. (1915). Zentralblatt für Psychoanalyse und Psychotherapie. Psychoanal. Rev., 2(4):464-468.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: Zentralblatt für Psychoanalyse und Psychotherapie
1. Our Understanding of the Mental Connections in the Neuroses and Freud's and Adler's Theories. Dr. Otto Hinrichsen, Basel.
2. Concerning the Fundamental Characteristics and Aims of Present Day Rationalistic Psychotherapy. W. M. Lichnitzky, Odessa.
3. Content and Terminological Justification of the Term Psychoanalysis. Franz Grüner, Vienna.
4. Progress of DreamInterpretation. Dr. Wilhelm Stekel, Vienna.
1. Mental Connections in the Neuroses and Freud's and Alder's Theories.—This author goes into a long theoretical discussion and comparison of Freud's and Adler's theories which is so poorly arranged that it throws little light upon the points at issue. It does not admit of an intelligible abstract.
2. Rationalistic Psychotherapy.—Lichnitzky takes up the system of psychotherapy practiced by Prof. Dubois of Berne and gives a good resume of its salient features, theories, methods, aims, etc. He also sketches in considerable detail, Dejerine's contributions to this form of treatment. The article is descriptive and does not seek to compare the results obtained by the “rationalistic” or “persuasive” method with those obtained by other methods or to give an estimate of its value.
3. Content and Justification of Term Psychoanalysis.—This is an academic discussion of the word “psychoanalysis” and comparison of this term with Adler's more recent phrase: “comparative individual psychology.” He discusses the derivation and meaning of both terms and concludes that the term “psychoanalysis” is the more accurate and preferable expression.
4. Dream Interpretation.—Stekel believes that the psychoanalyst should know the symbolism of dreams so thoroughly that he can see the meaning of a dream at once, without waiting for the patient's associations. He contends that relying entirely on associations for the interpretation of dreams, puts the analyst more or less at the mercy of the patient and greatly prolongs the time required for the treatment. He cites many dreams from his own cases to support his contentions and points out how he would often have missed the correct
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interpretation of the dreams if he had relied entirely upon the patient's associations.
(Vol. III, Nos. 10-11, July-Aug., 1913)
1. Concerning the Treatment of Stuttering. Dr. Emil Fröschels, Vienna.
2. A Psychological Contribution to the Question of Alcoholism. Dr. J. Birstein, Odessa.
3. The Question of Genesis and Therapy of Anxiety-Neurosis by Means of the Combined Psychoanalytic Method. U. A. Wyrubow, Moscow.
1. Treatment of Stuttering.—Fröschels gives a very clear presentation of the whole subject of stuttering, taking up the etiology, symptomatology and treatment. He discusses in a most fair minded manner the views and methods of many of the workers in this field and, unlike too many of our scientific writers, he is willing to see the good in all. His treatment might be called eclectic in the sense that he selects the mode of treatment best adapted to the particular case. He devotes most of his article to the older methods and barely touches on the application of psychoanalysis in the treatment, although he refers several times to Stekel's results. Altogether, the article is well worth reading by anyone who has to deal with this class of cases.
2. Psychological Contribution to Alcoholism.—This short article is based on a newspaper account of an especially brutal and cold-blooded murder of a man by an old man of eighty years following a drunken dispute. Although, the title calls for a contribution to the question of alcoholism, the author really throws no new light on this subject. He makes a clever guess at the motives which could be strong enough in a man of eighty years to impel him to chop up a sleeping man with an axe. The dispute preceding the murder had been over the question of religion, the victim trying to prove that there was no God. Birstein makes a very good case for the impelling force of religious ideas in an old man but he seems to leave out of consideration many other factors, such as sadism, etc.
3. Genesis and Therapy of Anxiety-Neurosis.—Wyrubow describes his treatment of cases of anxiety-neurosis. He cites briefly six cases from his practice, in all of which he found ungratified sexual needs as pointed out by Freud some years ago. He believes he can cure the disease by connecting up the symptoms with the originating causes and reinforcing this kind of persuasion and suggestion by hypnosis.
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(Vol. III, No. 12, September, 1913)
1. Psychotherapy and the Philosophy of Schopenhauer. Dr. Otto Juliusburger, Steglitz.
2. Dream and DreamInterpretation. Dr. Alfred Adler, Vienna.
3. Disguises of Religiosity. Dr. Wilhelm Stekel, Vienna.
1. Psychotherapy and Schopenhauer's Philosophy.—Juliusburger, in a short article, points out how the complexes active in Schopenhauer's mind influenced his writings and further, how valuable his philosophy may be in aiding neurotic patients to sublimate their egoism. He believes that this philosophy may be of great value to the psychotherapeutist in educating his patients to loftier ideals.
2. Dream and Dream Interpretation.—Adler points out that all ancient peoples looked upon the dream as disclosing the future. He believes that dreams still deal with the future in the sense of expectations. This seems only another way of stating the wishfulfillment theory. If a wish is at the bottom of a dream, it naturally deals in a way with the future. He seeks to develop a dream theory based on his conception of a “personality ideal” and “guiding line” in the unconscious. His dream theory, as expressed in this article, seems far less clear and consistent than Freud's.
3. Disguises of Religiosity.—Stekel again calls attention to the frequency with which the question of religion appears in the symptoms of neurotic individuals. Even those patients who profess to be atheists usually disclose, that, however much they may assert their atheism consciously, the unconscious refuses to relinquish its religious ideas and practices. These motives often crop out in obsessional words or phrases which prove, when analyzed, to be condensations or corruptions of early prayers. Stekel gives several interesting illustrations from his own cases.
Die Ambivalenz, Von Prof. Dr. E. Bleuler, Aus der Festschrift der Dozenten der Universitat Zurich, 1914—Schultherz & Co., Zurich. A patient who is confined to the hospital for the insane for a number of years demands with considerable affect and in abusive language her discharge. However, it is needless to tell her that she may go home and that her transportation expenses would even be paid, nevertheless she could neither be induced to go nor be silenced. Another patient poisoned her child, but subsequently she is in great despair over her act, however, it is noticed that during her moaning and crying she smiles quite perceptibly. These examples illustrate the
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practical significance of ambivalence which may be defined as a peculiar mental state, being dominated by both a negative and a positive emotional tone, and these opposite tendencies not infrequently conflict with each other. Ambivalence may be purely an affective or intellectual type, although such differentiation is not often possible. Such phenomena are observed not only in the abnormal but also in the normal. The main difference lies in the fact that in the former the same ideas may be expressed in a negative or in a positive manner while in the latter two kinds of affects react upon similar ideas. In diseased states where the splitting of the psyche exists the conscious and unconscious forces are quite apparent. The normal ambivalence is an expression of a well-regulated adjustment system. In the biological domain this mechanism is quite in evidence, for instance, the muscular movements are controlled by agonistic and antagonistic systems. Metabolism, in which anabolistic and catabolistic processes functionate, furnishes another example.
It is important to bear in mind that the expediency of psychic functions is the product of the adjustment of two opposite forces,—for instance hunger and satiety or disgust; motor activity and comfort or laziness; suggestibility and obstinacy. In the intellectual domain every idea is viewed from a negative or positive standpoint. It is interesting to note that there are people who are anxious to lead a peaceful life, yet unconsciously they get into various complications. In matrimony one seeks a certain type of woman, yet he is unhappy though his ideal is attained.
One peculiar form of ambivalence manifestation is found in sexuality. Indeed, it is not only regulated by positive sexual instinct and negative tendencies as shame and disgust, but here inhibition forms a part of the positive instinct. Sexual repression and the mechanism of sadism and masochism forms a striking manifestation of sexual ambivalence. In the words of Bleuler: “The ambivalence of sexuality is again an important phenomenon from the standpoint of the history of civilization and at the same time it forms the foundation of so many forms of nervous and mental diseases and this is why they are so closely related to sexuality.”
In dreamsambivalence is of great significance because it has to do with inner conflicts, the ambivalent themes are quite evident. The ambivalence may be the cause of a dream or the latter may be accompanied by ambivalent affective states. In poetry this phenomenon is frequently encountered. The well known passage, “to be or not to be, that is the question, etc.,” will be readily recalled. In mythology and among primitive people where the death cult exists, the
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ambivalence mechanism is well defined. The father complex which one frequently sees in mythology is rather an interesting ambivalent manifestation. Although the son is grateful to the father for his life and bringing up, yet he is jealous of him because his father is his rival in the attainment of his mother's affection. Uranus and Saturn may be cited as examples.
In psychoneuroses the psychic conflicts are of an ambivalent motive indeed, the compulsive ideas and acts and obsessions are striking illustrations.
In mental diseases, especially in Schizophrenia, where the association disturbances are in the foreground, ambivalence forms an important constituent of the underlying symptomatic display. One patient continually reiterated, “You are an angel—you are a devil—you are an angel—you are a devil, etc.” In the delusion of persecution the lover is turned into a persecutor. Not infrequently the patient loses the affect for the negative or positive and it is immaterial to him whether he is rich or poor or whether he is in the hospital or not. Intellectual and affective ambivalence control the continuous auditory hallucinations from which the patients suffer.
Bleuler presents this interesting and difficult subject in his usual lucid and comprehensive manner, and indeed one will find his time profitably consumed reading it in the original.
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Payne, C.R. (1915). Zentralblatt für Psychoanalyse und Psychotherapie. Psychoanal. Rev., 2(4):464-468