(1) Analysis of the Phobia of a Five-Year-Old Boy. Sigmund Freud.
(2) The Position of Consanguineous Marriages in the Psychology of the Neuroses. Karl Abraham.
(3) Sexuality and Epilepsy. Alphonse Maeder.
(4) The Significance of the Father for the Fate of the Individual. C. G. Jung.
(5) Attempt at an Analysis of a Case of Hysteria. Ludwig Binswanger.
(6) Observations on a Case of CompulsionNeurosis. Sigmund Freud.
(7) Introjection and Transference. S. Ferenczi.
(8) Contributions to DreamInterpretation. Wilhelm Stekel.
(9) I Report Concerning a Method for Producing and Observing Certain Symbolic Hallucinations. Herbert Silberer.
(10) IConcerning the Neurotic Disposition. Alfred Adler.
(11) IFreud's Works from 1893 to 1909. Karl Abraham.
(12) IReport of the Austrian and German Psycho-analytic Litterature up to 1909. Karl Abraham.
1. Analysis of the Phobia of a Five-Year-Old Boy.—Freud through his psychoanalytic studies of adults, by which, layer like, he came upon the psychic mechanisms of early life, drew certain conclusions concerning the childish sexual life which he formulated in his “Drei Abhand-lungen zur Sexual Theorie.”1
He believes that the, components of the childish sexual instinct are
* It is the desire of the Editors that the Psychoanalytic Review should contain useful notices of all worth-while psychoanalytic literature. To that end we will not hesitate to review or abstract work already old in years for really no psychoanalytic literature is yet really old. The Jahrbuch was the first periodical devoted to psychoanalysis and although the first volume appeared in 1909 it contained many valuable articles which are here abstracted.—Ed.
1 Leipzig und Wien. Franz Deuticke, 1905, translated by Dr. A. A. Brill, Nervous and Mental Disease Monograph Series, No. 7.
- 90 -
the motive power which produce all neuroticsymptoms in later life. He naturally desires confirmation of this view by direct observation on the developing child. Here he hoped to watch all those sexual stirrings and desire formations which in the adult must by analysis be literally dug out with such great expenditure of time and energy. He furthermore desired this opportunity because he believed these impulses to be the common heritage of all children, and to be present in later adolescent and adult life and to be exhibited in the neurotic in an intensified or distorted way.
The father of the patient, a physician and pupil of Freud's, the mother a cured patient and adherent, keep careful notes of the events in the boy's psychic and physical development. It is upon such observed facts that Freud's theories must stand or fall. The boy Hans shows at the age of three an active interest in his genitals; he calls his penis his “wiwimacher.” He asks his mother if she has one; observes that “from the wiwimacher (of the cow) comes milk,” is joyfully excited on seeing the penis of a lion; on seeing water run from a locomotive he says “see the locomotive make wiwi, where is her wiwimacher”? He follows this remark with the philosophic, “a dog and a cat have a wiwimacher; a table and a lounge have none.” At three and a half years he begins to masturbate, which becomes a nightly event; his mother catching him in the act threatens him “if you do that I will send for Dr. A. who will cut your ‘wiwimacher’ off and then! how will you make wiwi?” Hans: “With my Popo.” The boy's sexual curiosity soon extends to the genitals of his parents and of animals, especially of horses. This later was probably determined by the fact that very early in life Hans had ridden on his father's back when they played horse.
The birth of a sister makes a deep impression upon the soul life of the child. Under the guidance of Freud the parents spoke to the boy regarding this event as naturally as possible and when at the age of four the child was afflicted with a severe phobia, under the same guidance they began to treat his phobia by psychoanalysis. Hans's phobia consisted of fears of horses and moving vans. It was so intense that it was impossible to get the child to go out of the house. The psychoanalysis of the child showed on the one hand the repressed erotic desires of the child manifested toward the mother who had, as mothers often do, taken the boy to bed with her, on the other hand the reverse of these desires; the repressed hate toward the otherwise loved father who had successfully opposed the boy's desire to sleep with his mother.
Hans's phobia disappears in the course of a few months, a result, Freud thinks, of the frank open discussions of the most intimate thoughts of the child through psychoanalysis. Freud then devotes some space to answering possible criticisms which could destroy the force of the conclusions drawn from this source.
The first objection to be made would naturally be that Hans was not
- 91 -
a normal child but a highly neurotic one. Freud refutes this on the following grounds: (1) Hans showed neither physical nor psychic stigmata of degeneration. He was bodily and mentally a normal cheerful sturdy youngster. (2) Freud believes that phobias are the most frequent form of psychic disturbance in childhood. They are usually “howled down”; in the course of months or years they apparently cease only to break out later in life as a neurosis. In many analyses the neurosis is seen to be the sequence of a childhoodphobia. (3) The boy's sexual precocity is admitted; Freud points out that the same can be observed in the childhood of men who later became great. He says: “Sexual precocity is a rarely failing corollary of intellectual precocity.” He shows that the results obtained did not rest on suggestion but by bringing into consciousness the repressed conflicts of the boy's psychophysical life. Freud lays great stress on the value of the facts observed as regards their use for the education and understanding of children. The article like all of Freud's work is so full of stimulating and original thought that even though one may not agree with all his conclusions it would well repay study for all who have a desire to understand the soul of children.
2. The Position of Consanguineous Marriages in the Psychology of the Neuroses.—Both popular tradition and medical literature bear evidence to the belief that psychic disorders and consanguineous marriages occur simultaneously in families. It does not follow, however, that they stand in the relation of cause and effect to one another. Abraham is rather of the opinion that consanguineous marriages in certain families have a specific cause, that in neuropathic families there is a peculiar tendency which predisposes its members to intermarry.
Consanguineous marriages may have other than psycho-pathological causes. Such a marriage may occur based on purely practical grounds or may be due to limited opportunities for mating by reasons of small social circles. This tendency to incest varies as to social position and race but for those in which relatives marry through love, Abraham assumes an inability on the part of the individuals to transfer their love to strangers. In these cases their love for their own families is greater than normal.
The above situation is one of the characteristics of the sexuality of neurotics where deviations from the normal occur even in childhood. Their love requirements are only an exaggeration of the normal. The normal child first transfers his love to the parent of the opposite sex. Neurotic children show in their relation to the loved person, strong jealousy, desire to have them alone, considering the rest of the family as rivals, etc. Sad to say these children are often strengthened in their neurotic characteristics by the excessive fondling of their parents.
Under normal conditions the infantile sexual transference to the parent of the opposite sex undergoes sublimation; that is, it is changed
- 92 -
into feelings of honor, piety, etc. As Freud has shown it is in this way that the love to parents and brothers and sisters is robbed of its conscious sexual content.
Adolescence with its psychic upheavals brings about a greater or less deliverance of the child from parental authority. The libido becomes freed in order to be transferred to a stranger of the opposite sex. The repressed infantile strivings, however, often show their influence in men by the fact that they are only attracted by such women as show the characteristics of their mother or sister.
Now in neuropathic individuals the course of this important development is disturbed, due to the lessened sexual initiative or aggression. While at the same time exaggerated in its demands it remains fixed to the infantile objects. In extreme cases, where dementia præcox is present in parent and child, actual incest may occur. Abraham has observed quite a number of such cases.
In neuropathic individuals where the infantile fixation is present in the unconscious, there result conflicts in the attempt of the libido to become transferred to strange individuals. For the male there are two courses open: he either remains single or he marries a relative. Both occurrences are surprisingly frequent in the same families. The love object is chosen from among the near relatives because of its close resemblance to the mother or sister. Abraham naturally does not infer this is the cause of all bachelors remaining single.
At the end of the paper Abraham cites a number of historic cases, chief among them being Byron, whose inability to loosen the bonds that held him to his sister resulted in his unhappy marriage.
Konrad Ferdinand Meyer had the same psycho-pathological condition; he did not marry until late in life and then a girl whom his sister had chosen for him. Finally Morike is mentioned, whose love for his sister was intensely strong. He married at forty-seven. Abraham therefore concludes that the peculiar psycho-sexual constitution which, according to Freud, is the foundation of the neuroses is the principal cause of consanguineous marriages. The latter becomes secondarily a contributing cause, exaggerating the psycho-sexually neuropathic constitution. The position of consanguineous marriages in the psychology of the neuroses is made clear when they are viewed with other manifestations of sexual infantilism. Taken in their entirety they show their extraordinary importance in the soul life of the adult.
3. Sexuality and Epilepsy.—Maeder takes advantage of his association with the Swiss Institute for Epileptics at Zurich, to study the sexuality of its 220 patients. First he relates its manifold manifestations. He then shows its importance and significance for an understanding of the disease.
Maeder follows Freud's classifications of the sexual phenomena into auto-erotic and allerotic. When the libido is directed toward an object
- 93 -
it is allerotic, when the individual is itself the libidoobject the process is auto-erotic. Under auto-erotic acts he cites and discusses cases of masturbation, the rubbing of hands in epileptic dements, thumb sucking, periodic taciturnity, day and night dreams, twilight phantasies and the religious manifestations of psychic masturbation.
The allerotic manifestations taken up are exhibitionism, normal hetero-sexuality, inversion and the strong instinct for touching and contact shown by the epileptic. He follows this with a chapter on koprophilia and one on sadistic and masochistic tendencies. The sexuality of epileptics is characterized, (1) by its coarseness and profusion, (2) its early appearance and the great variety of its manifestations, so that he is tempted to describe it as panerotism. He calls attention for the purpose of further study and verification to the following prominent components of the epileptic character: the contact instinct, their obsequiousness, servility and peculiar religious reactions; their vanity and love of admiration.
Epileptics are sexually polyvalent, the same individual being at different times auto-and allerotic in his attempt to satisfy his sexual instinct. Is the polyvalency due to insufficient means of satisfaction or is it due to a non-development of their psycho-sexual constitution beyond the infantile stage? Maeder inclines to the latter view. He barely touches the question as to the cause of this arrest in development.
In conclusion he says “the sexuality of the epileptic is characterized by the prominence of its auto-and allerotism. It has retained much of its infantile form but has developed in a way that is best characterized by sexual polyvalency.” The libido reaches an abnormal degree of intensity through causes as yet unknown.
4. The Influence of the Father in the Fate of the Individual.—This brilliant article contains much that is original and stimulating. Its main theme stated in the author's own words is as follows: “One asks oneself, of what consists the magic power of the parents by which they can often enslave their children for life? The psychoanalyst knows that it is nothing more than the sexuality of parent and child. … The destiny of our lives is in the main identical with that of our sexuality. … Due to the power of sexuality it is not at all infrequent that the father so overpowers his daughter that all her life, even though she marries, her husband is never her soul mate. The infantile father ideal residing in her unconscious forever prevents the husband from taking his rightful place.” Jung illustrates the above with very apt cases. He shows the various ways in which the father stamps his personality on that of his children and the result on their life history.
According to Jung “it is most often the father who is the influential and dangerous object for the child, and where it is the mother, I could find back of her the grandfather to whom she was bound.” However, he leaves this an open question, his experience not being great enough to warrant a decision.
- 94 -
5. Attempt at an Analysis of a Case of Hysteria.—This is one of the first analyses published and is extremely valuable because of its fullness. It covers 180 pages and portrays the facts resulting from the analysis in scientific manner.
The patient, “Irma,” age 22, had come to Prof. Dr. O. Binswanger's clinic at Jena on February 18, 1907, to be treated for a severe hysteria. Her father died of pneumonia when patient was three and a half years old, mother was alive and well. There was an older brother and sister.
The head of the family was the maternal grandfather; an autocratic old man who was however respected and loved by his grandchild. When Irma was eighteen years old he became childish, was irritable and forgetful and above all allowed no opposition to his word. This increased the “heavy atmosphere” his personality had produced in the family. When Irma was twenty-one years old he had a light stroke of apoplexy from which he made a good recovery. He was often depressed by the suicide of a younger brother. These two, grandfather and granduncle, are the only ones that might be cited as being of hereditary moment in the case. The most damaging influence to which Irma was exposed from infancy came from a friend of her mother's, a Miss F. Irma's development and disease were profoundly influenced by her life and especially by her death. She died when Irma was twelve years old. Irma was a healthy child and her physical development was normal. Very early she was observed to be very self-willed and peculiar. In school she learned easily but was too restless to study, only when her pride was touched did she work hard. She was a leader among the children. In her first school year a classmate died. A few years later she saw a corpse drawn from the river near her home. At that time she was terribly frightened. She has recently reanimated this occurrence and thinks much of it. In 1892 Miss F. had influenced her to hate large bodies of water so that she refused to take a trip on the Rhine. In 1895 however for no known reason she took and enjoyed a lake trip. Since then she has been very fond of water voyages. In 1894 she had a light attack of scarlet fever, a few years before chicken pox, otherwise she had no illness. In December, 1896, Miss F. contracted diphtheria from Irma's older sister and at the same time developed a psychosis. She said she was very ill, in opposition to what the doctors found, cried and complained bitterly that her life was in danger, scratched her neck until it was bloody and then said a tracheotomy had been done. She begged them not to bury her before she was dead. Although the children were forbidden to go near her it is not improbable that her cries reached them. At Christmas Miss F. died in the insane asylum. This, together with the fact that there was no celebration, her brother having become ill with scarlet fever, depressed Irma but did not seem to have a permanent influence on her disposition.
We have up to this time an intelligent, healthy girl of great readiness
- 95 -
of wit, but unwilling to learn. She is dominated by the idea that she can easily reach any object of her desire, very conceited and ambitious and tremendously obstinate.
Her disease commenced in 1901. At the time of treatment it had existed six years. She became pale and thin and refused to do anything for her health. The external cause was the departure of the man whom she loved, his return signalled the disappearance of her symptoms and she was boundlessly happy. As soon as he left she became ill again.
In 1902, failing to hear from him, she became very weak and began to vomit. She refused to eat. In 1903 her physical condition became worse.
In 1904 insomnia and restlessness were added and she withdrew still more from society. It was observed that she did not always tell the truth. She had attacks of rage during which she committed assaults. For hours she stared at one spot; she had suicidal tendencies.
In 1905 she began her systematic periods of fasting, marking the fast days on the calendar. She refused to eat in the presence of others. In the fall of this year she suffered her greatest psychic trauma.
October, 1905, to February, 1906, she was in Berlin to study for the stage, but this was impossible because of her neurotic condition. Through acquaintances her mother was told of her irrational behavior; Irma on the contrary had been writing letters full of enthusiasm for her new work and of her progress in it.
In the spring of 1906 she had a transitory hemoptysis which followed seeing an officer attempt suicide for the same reason. She also refused to eat, alternating this with intense hunger. At this time she had her first hysteric attack, which came as a result and just before a desired final meeting with her lover.
In September, 1906, she became engaged to Dr. P. Soon after this there appeared hallucinations. February, 1907, on entering the clinic of Prof. Binswanger she showed attacks of a cataleptic syncopic and convulsive nature and somnambulistic condition. She had a left-sided hemi-paresis with hemihypesthesia. She was tortured by terrible visions; feared moonlit nights and desired to go to the cemetery to dig up corpses. She was nauseated at the idea of eating and ate only when alone. At times she had days of fasting. Her condition was very variable, at times depressed, again joyful.
The analysis which was done is so full that it is impossible to review it in detail. By means of simple interrogations and allowing the patient to tell her story assisted by Jung's association method her field of consciousness was broadened.
Toward the end of the treatment free association in hypnosis was used. During the analysis Irma had two attacks of a hysterical twilight condition lasting nine to twelve days, during which she produced spontaneously a great deal that came direct from her unconscious.
In concluding Binswanger sums up the case. “We must assume that
- 96 -
Irma in her earliest infancy was abnormally attached to her mother and fought every attempt at separation. This attachment in its attempt at perfection tended to a return within the womb, which may have manifested itself in excessive fondling and a desire to be taken into her mother's bed. This led to the concept of a cave where one is buried alive and to the faint wish to be there. This desire must have been repressed very soon and have thus been turned into fear and horror. Then came the period when the child transferred her love from her mother to Miss F. who was temperamentally more like her. Miss F. by her excessive tenderness and fondling directed the child's sexuality into definite paths and mightily stimulated it.
The wish to be near the loved person and the satisfaction resulting must have filled Irma with happiness. When once a transference such as Irma had for Miss F. has taken place, its influence on the thought and act of the child is profound.
An adequate idea of this fact can only be formed by those who have observed the upheaval caused in a child when it loses its beloved person, such as a nurse. The analysis of neurotics further proves this. They portray their child's paradise where they are constantly surrounded by every object to which they are attached. They desire no change and nothing new to remind them of the flight of time, but are filled with terror at every possibility that things will not always remain as they are. Such children precociously and fearsomely occupy themselves with the problem of death. Such thoughts must have been present in Irma and they were richly developed by two psychic trauma; first when the female corpse was hauled out of the river and an overheard conversation at an open coffin. When she was twelve years old the feared event came to pass; Miss F. died. Assuming her hereditary psycho-sexual constitution, these are the foundations upon which Irma's psycho-neurosis developed.
A latent period of four years occurred before the neurosis appeared. Only when sexuality in its reality approached her did she become ill and insufficient. In place of a normal development her illness appeared. In it her normal personality was absorbed and her individual complexes ruled her without rhyme or reason, so there came to pass the sad picture of a young girl robbed of her health by the struggle of opposing tendencies; the desire for her child's paradise, for Miss F. and her mother on the one hand, and the instinct towards fulfilling her sexual destiny on the other.
Between the fixation to the past and the fear of the future there did not seem to be a way out. Psychoanalysis here came in and put Irma's “house in order” to a certain degree. Irma did not become a completely normal person by the treatment, an enormous amount of work would have had to be done to make that possible. Although the analysis is incomplete, it serves to illustrate many of Freud's theories.
- 97 -
Binswanger concludes his work by giving a glimpse of Irma after the completion of the treatment. Although she continued to improve she manifested considerable variations in her emotional state, swinging between a joyous optimism and a depressed pessimism, but even this disappeared in the course of time. One year after the end of the treatment found Irma leading a normal life.
6. Remarks Concerning a Case of Compulsion Neurosis.—This paper can be divided into two parts. The first contains fragments of the history of a severe case of compulsionneurosis which was cured after a year's treatment. In the second Freud gives us a series of new and fundamental views concerning the etiology and psychology of this condition which carry forward and amplify the views he expressed in 1896.
The patient is a young man of good education. He has had compulsion ideas since childhood, which have become intensified in the last four years. The main contents of his disease are the fears that something will happen to two people whom he loves, his father and a girl whom he admires. In addition to this he has compulsory impulses, such as cutting his throat with a razor, for which he must produce defensive prohibitions. In the struggle thus involved he has lost years of his life. All treatments have been of no avail except one at a hydro-therapeutic institute, during which he had opportunities for regular coitus. Coitus is now practiced rarely and irregularly. Prostitutes disgust him. Masturbation only in his sixteenth and seventeenth year. He is potent; coitus for the first time at twenty-six.
He impresses one as being a clever, clear-headed man. His sexual life commenced between his fourth and fifth year. He asked and was allowed to touch the genitals and abdomen of his governness. Since that time he has had a burning and nagging desire to see the nude female figure. The young sexualist then recalls many events of his early life whose object is the gratification of this desire. At six years he suffered from erections and complains to his mother. To do this he had to overcome a certain diffidence, for he intuitively felt the relation that existed between these and his thoughts and curiosity. For a short time he had the pathological idea that his parents knew his thoughts, which he explained to himself as having occurred by his having spoken them without his having heard them. He dates his disease from this time.
There were certain women whom he ardently desired to see naked. But at the time of wishing this he had the gruesome feeling that something would happen if he thought that and he must do everything to prevent it. Asked what the something was he answered “That my father would die.” Thoughts of the death of his father occupied his mind very early and continued for a long time.
We see that what the patient calls the beginning of his disease is the disease in its full bloom. It is a complete compulsionneurosis which is at the same time the nucleus and prototype of his later illness. The
- 98 -
child is under the dominance of one of the components of the sexual instinct; viz.: sexual curiosity whose result is the growing and repeated desire to see those women naked whom he admires. This wish corresponds to the later developed compulsion idea. It has not as yet become compulsory because the Ego has not set itself in opposition to it; does not feel it as wrong. However from somewhere there comes the first faint opposition to this wish, for a painful affect begins regularly to accompany it. Now there is patently a conflict here between compulsion wish and its prohibitory compulsion fear. As often as he thinks of such a thing he must fear that something horrible will happen. The “horrible something” has a characteristic ambiguousness which from now on will never be absent from the neurosis. Behind this ambiguous generality there hides the specific reality which the ambiguousness seeks in this way to cover. The compulsion fear therefore really is: “If I have the wish to see a woman naked, my father must die.”
Summarized, we have an erotic instinct and a resistance to it; a wish (as yet not compulsory) and an opposing fear (already compulsory); a painful affect and the impulse towards defensive acts. The inventory of a compulsionneurosis is complete.
This infantile neurosis already has its problem and its seeming absurdities. Why does he fear that the father must die if he has such sexual desires. Is this nothing but nonsense or has it a meaning, decipherable and dependent upon earlier events and concepts? Reasoning from facts obtained in other cases we must presume that here also, before the sixth year there have been events, conflicts and repressions that have been forgotten but whose residuum is contained in the compulsory fears.
The patient then goes on to relate the incident that brought him to Freud.
As reserve officer he was taking part in maneuvers. One day a march was made and while resting he lost his glasses. In order not to delay the breaking up of camp he did not look for them but telegraphed to his optician in Vienna for a new pair. During the halt he sat between two officers; for one of them he had a certain amount of fear; because this officer frankly loved the horrible and in discussions he had repeatedly urged the return of corporal punishment. During the halt this officer told of a particularly horrible punishment that was in use in the Orient. The patient here became much excited and it was with difficulty that he was able even incompletely to tell the story. Hesitatingly while walking up and down in his excitement he said, “The convinced one is bound down”—he expressed himself so badly that at first Freud did not know in what position—“a pot was placed over his backside into which rats were placed who”—again the patient got up and gave all signs of horror and resistance—“bored themselves in”—“into the rectum.” Freud had to add.
- 99 -
The moment he heard this there shot through him the thought of this happening to one he loves. The young lady was the person in question. He interrupts the story to assure Freud how strange and horrible such thoughts appear to him; how extraordinarily quickly they pass through him. Immediately he uses the defensive formula which he must follow in order that these fantasies cannot fulfill themselves. Later he admits that not only for the woman he loves but that he also had the rat idea for his father. Now as his father has been dead these many years the latter compulsory fear was more nonsensical than the first for which reason he hid it longer from Freud. The next morning the gruesome officer handed him a package which had come by post and told him that a certain senior Lieutenant A. had paid the charges and he could pay them back to him. The package contained the glasses. At that moment there came the idea “Do not pay the money back or that will happen” (i. e., the phantasy of the rat will happen to father and loved one). This latter compulsion came with such force as if he had sworn to keep it but with equal force came its opposite. “You must give Lieutenant A. the money back.” The patient then relates his attempts to carry out this final compulsory idea. All of this was highly illogical because, as he relates later, he knew before the captain had given him the package that the girl at the post-office had paid out the money for him. He finally reached home and was reassured of the compulsory type of his thoughts and acts by his best friend. They drive him further, however, and are the means of leading him to Freud. It is impossible in the space at my command to show to what degrees of illogical and nonsensical complexity the patient carried out his attempt to satisfy his compulsion ideas.
The patient, being allowed to choose his own topics of conversation with Freud, goes on to relate the events of his father's death and the pathologic thoughts that came with and after his death. Freud makes use of this to introduce the patient to the fundamental principles of psychoanalytic therapy. The material here is so valuable that no neurologist can afford to leave it unread or unstudied.
There then follows a chapter on a few of the compulsory ideas of the patient and their analysis. He begins with the impulse toward suicide in its direct and indirect form and shows their origin and relation to the girl with whom he was in love. These and a few more that he cites were the results of the conflicts between his love and his repressed hate for her. The hate was but dimly conscious; its intensity was fully unknown to the patient and manifested itself as indifference toward her or as compulsory impulses of the greatest variety.
The next chapter concerns itself with the cause of the present eruption of his disease. This was consequent to a conflict. He had to decide between remaining true to the girl he loved or follow in the footsteps of his father and marry a rich beautiful girl who had been picked
- 100 -
out for him. This conflict, which in reality was one between his love and the continuance of his father's will, was solved by his flight into disease. Just as long as he was forced to use his energies to fight his mental condition, just that long was he able to put off making his decisions in the world of reality.
Chapter eight takes up the father complex and the solution of the rat idea. The rat idea was the basis of the fear that brought him to Freud. First it was shown that the relation of father and son was one of intensive love alternating with an equally intensive hate. In the midst of the analysis the patient relates a scene told him by his mother which he himself does not remember in which he was severely punished by his father for some deed probably of an infantile sexual nature. The rage with which the son reacted was so great that the father remarked: “This young man will either become a great criminal or a great man.” There is a third possibility of which the father was unaware. The most common result in adult life of such precocious and intense passion is that of a neurosis. His father never again punished him, while fear of his own tremendous rage from that time on made a coward of him. This whole incident was repressed, nay, more, it was impossible to convince the patient of its importance in the make-up of his neurosis. But by its transference to Freud and its analysis the patient himself was soon painfully brought to a full realization of its importance. The rat idea, instead of being senseless, was seen by the aid of Freud's infantile sexual theories and symbolism to be a very clever attempt on the part of the unconscious to carry out its desires and of the reaction of his consciousness to those attempts.
The patient then went on to relate recurring compulsion ideas whose content were the death of the father. The patient was shown that the origin of his fear was from his repressed wish; repressed by his love. The wish was in the unconscious and only at such times came to consciousness when there was a conflict between his sexual instinct and his love for his father. It was not destroyed by his love for his father, because it was fixed by some event which must have occurred before his sixth year and which had caused in him a conflict between these two; that is his sexuality and his love for his father. The patient then related various thoughts and acts of a revengeful character. Freud here closes the history, it being all that he can with justice to the patient relate of his case.
The second part of this brilliant article discusses the general characteristics of compulsion formation. In 1896 in his “Sammlung Kleiner Schriften zur Neurosenlehre S. 118” Freud defined compulsion ideas as transformed reproaches returning from the unconscious which are always derived from pleasurable sexual actions carried out in infancy. This definition seems to him to be open to attack, although fundamentally true. It strives for a too simple formulation following in the footsteps
- 101 -
of the patients themselves, who with their characteristic ambiguity attempt to place the greatest variety of psychic formations under the term of compulsion ideas. It would be more correct to speak of compulsive thinking, for its results can be called wishes, temptations, impulses, reflexions, doubts, commands and prohibitions. Generally there is an attempt made to cloud the distinctness of these concepts by robbing them of their affect. The affectless concept is then perceived in the conscious as a compulsive idea. In the secondary defensive struggle which the patient carries on against the compulsion ideas that have entered his consciousness there result formations which are worth special mention. These formations contain not only the purely reasonable thoughts but rather a mixture of these with thoughts drawn from the compulsive ideas. Having taken up into themselves the premises of the compulsive ideas which they are fighting, these secondarydefense mixture formations act in the manner of the compulsion mechanisms. Such mixtures Freud thinks should be called delirious and he cites an example in the history of the case. The value of this justifiable differentiation between the primary and secondarydefense reactions is unexpectedly curtailed by the knowledge that the patients do not know the real significance or meaning of their own compulsive ideas. This sounds paradoxical but really has sense. It is in the course of a psychoanalysis that the courage of both the patient and his disease grow. They tend to meet in consciousness. He no longer fearfully turns from apperceiving his pathological productions but now focuses his attention on them and perceives them more clearly and explicitly.
One also gets a clearer view of the compulsion products in two ways. First one finds that dreams can bring the original texts of the compulsions which in the waking state are perceived, changed and deformed. They usually appear as spoken words, being thus an exception to the rule in most dreams that the spoken words are derived from words heard the day before the dream. Secondly one becomes convinced that several successive compulsions which vary in their wording are fundamentally the same.
The compulsive idea therefore carries in it traces of the primarydefense reaction against it. This admixture has for its object and results in its admission to consciousness. Its mechanism is therefore similar to that of the dream, which is also a deformed compromise and is further misunderstood by the consciousthinkingprocesses. This failure on the part of consciousthinkingprocesses to understand the products of the secondarydefense reactions is shown not only in the way the patient handles these but also in their attitude towards the defense formula. Freud gives a number of examples of this latter procedure and shows how the compulsion idea in time comes to take a part in its own defense idea or formula.
Freud then shows that the mechanisms of the deforming process in
- 102 -
compulsions is the same as in dream formations. The ellipse is often used just as it is in wit. Here again it has a protective function for consciousness. One of his oldest compulsive ideas is: “If I marry this girl, a disaster will happen to my father (in heaven). If we replace the elided thoughts which have been revealed to us during the analysis the thought will run as follows: If father was alive he would become as enraged at my determination to marry this girl as he was at that time in my childhood. So that I would again fall into a rage, become infuriated against him and wish him everything evil, which would be fulfilled in eternity by the omnipotence of my wishes. This elliptic technic seems to be typical of compulsionneurosis and occurs in the compulsion ideas of other patients.
The second chapter of the second part takes up a few of the psychic peculiarities of patients with compulsionneurosis; their attitude towards reality, superstition and death. In themselves these may not be important but do lead up to an understanding of important things. These characteristics are quite marked in his patient, but Freud says they were part of his disease, not of his personality, for they are found in other patients of compulsionneurosis.
The patient was in marked degree superstitious, although this highly cultured, intelligent man of remarkable insight could at times assure one that he did not believe all this humbug. He was superstitious and yet he was not and could be differentiated from those uncultured believers in superstition who feel themselves one with their belief. He seemed to understand that his superstition was derived from his compulsive thinking. Freud does not hesitate to adopt the rather unusual viewpoint that the patient concerning these things had two diametrically opposite viewpoints, not that he held one unsettled view. Between these two views he oscillated. As soon as he had mastered a compulsion he laughed at his superstition with patronizing reason, but as soon as he was under the dominion of a compulsion or what amounts to the same thing, his resistance, he experienced the most wonderful of coincidences which supported his superstitious self.
His superstitions, however, were always those of an educated man and did not partake of the ordinary, such as fear of Friday or the number 13, etc. But he did believe in warnings, prophetic dreams and often met people whom he had just been thinking of, etc. He was, however, frank enough to his other self to realize that he had had the most intensive forebodings without anything coming of them and that the warnings had concerned trivial matters. There had likewise occurred some of the most important events of his life without there being the slightest foreboding, such as the death of his father. All this, however, had no power to change the split in his conviction and only proved its compulsive origin. Freud was able to show him that most of the tricks his mind played him were accomplished by the mechanism of indirect seeing
- 103 -
and reading, forgetting, but above all by mistakes of memory. As an interesting infantile root of his belief in the prophetic value of warnings and signs he remembered that whenever his mother was planning ahead she would say: “On such and such a day I cannot do it because I'll have to be in bed” and behold! on that day she was sure to be in bed.
Another characteristic psychic need of these patients which is closely related to the above is that of insecurity in life or doubt. Doubt is one of the methods which the neuroses use to withdraw their subject from reality. The patients go to any extreme to escape reality and linger in doubt. This is clearly exemplified in some patients by their attitude to timepieces. They do anything to make these instruments harmless, for they could at least in one respect keep them from doubt. This intensive love of doubt is the motive of their great interest in all those questions where it is beyond human possibility to gain certitude of knowledge. These subjects are their paternity, the length of life, life in the hereafter and memory. We are in the habit of putting our faith in our memory without having the least pledge of its dependence. The compulsionneurosis uses this uncertainty of memory in the freest way to build up its symptoms.
Freud then cites a number of examples of his patient's superstitious belief in the omnipotence of his thought. There is undoubtedly a large element of the infantile delusion of grandeur contained in it. In one his wish seemingly caused death and in the other the withholding of his love appeared to result in suicide. These incidents proved to him the omnipotence of his love and hate. Omnipotent they are, but not in the way he explains it, but in that they produce his compulsive ideas. The patient, like all compulsion neurotics, over-determined the effect of this on the world because he was not conscious of its inner psychic action.
The final chapter treats of the interplay of the instincts and the derivation of doubt and compulsion from them. In order to understand the psychic forces whose workings have built up this neurosis we must look back upon those factors in his childhood and maturity which have been contributory to that end. He became ill in his early twenties when tempted to forsake his loved one for another girl. He withdrew from a decision by neglecting all those factors that could have furthered it. This oscillation between the loved one and the other girl can be reduced to the conflict between the influence of his father and his love for his sweetheart or his libidoobject. In other words we have reproduced in this incident the childhoodconflict between father and sexual object. In addition to this both father and sexual object are the scene of conflict between his love and hate. The dual relation to the loved one was partially in his consciousness; at most he deceived himself in the intensity and expression of his negative feeling towards her; on the other hand he was totally unconscious of the erstwhile conscious hate towards his father. This later could only be brought to his consciousness against
- 104 -
and through tremendous resistance. In the repression of his infantile hate towards his father we perceive that mechanism which subsequently forced everything within the frame of the neurosis.
The various conflicts which have been enumerated in the patient are not independent but are fused in pairs. Hate of the loved one went with dependence on the father; and vice versa. But the two streams of conflicts; that between father and loved one and the conflicts arising out of his love and hate for each of them have neither genetically nor conceptually any relation.
The first is derived from the normal indecision of childhood between man and woman as a libidoobject which is often first presented to the child in the celebrated question, “Whom do you love better, father or mother?” The question follows him throughout life in spite of all developments in the intensity of his reaction to the one or the other and in his final libidofixation. Normally the conflict soon loses its “either or” aspect and room is made for their different demands.
But the other conflict, that between love and hate, appears strange to us. We know that a beginning love is often felt as hate, that a love which is denied is easily turned in part to hate and know from the poets that there are stormy periods of loving wherein love and hate strive for mastery. But a chronic pairing, a living together of these two, in great intensity astonishes us. We might expect that a big love would have overcome hate or have been swallowed up by the latter. The continuation of opposites is only possible under special psychologic conditions and only by the assistance of the unconscious. For the love has not been able to destroy or absorb the hate, but has repressed it into the unconscious where the hate is guarded from the effects of the love and can itself grow. The conscious love under the circumstances usually grows as a reaction into an unmeasurable love. It does this in order to measure up to its task, which is to keep its opposite in the unconscious. One of the conditions necessary to this strange state of affairs in the love life of an individual seems to be a repression of one of the opposites, usually the hate, into the unconsciousvery early in life.
Freud considers this relation of love and hate to be one of the prominent and noteworthy characteristics of the compulsionneurotic. He basis this on the analyses of his cases. Freud quite frankly admits his inability to explain the fundamental make-up and origin of love and hate. Explain them as you will; that these strange relations do occur is proven beyond a doubt in his case. Furthermore, it is very easy to understand the puzzling features of a compulsionneurosis if one keeps these relationships in mind. An intense love and hate oppose each other. The first result will be a partial paralysis of will power. The inability co come to a decision, will extend to all those acts that have love as their driving power. But this indecision does not remain limited to any one group of acts. Firstly, are there any acts of a lover that do not bear a
- 105 -
relation to his “love”? Secondly, there is a symbolic power inherent in his sexual relation that has a transforming action on all his other reactions and, thirdly, it lies in the psychologic character of the compulsionneurotic to use the mechanism of substitution to the fullest extent.
Thus we see how the paralysis of the will spreads to all the acts of the individual and where it derives its power. The doubt expresses the inner perception of the patient's own indecision, a result of the inhibition of love by hate, and it overpowers the patient at every step of his life. In reality it is doubt of their own power to love, which of all things should subjectively be man's firmest belief, that diffuses itself over everything and prefers to fix itself on the most indifferent matters. He who doubts his own love can, nay must doubt everything else of less import. This same doubtacting in the defensive and prohibitory acts thus calls for their constant repetition and finally results in their insufficiency. As soon as a compulsionneurotic has discovered that weak spot in our psychic life, our nondependable memory, he can with the aid of his doubt apply it to every act of his life, including also those in the past. The compulsion element is an attempt, however, to compensate the doubt and to correct the unbearable inhibitory states of which the doubt is an evidence. If finally any one of the inhibited ideas with the aid of transposition are brought to a decision it must be carried out although it is not the original idea. The energy bound to the original idea and dammed up uses this substitution act as a means of outlet. These inhibited ideas express themselves as commands or prohibitions depending on whether the tender or hostile impulse uses this way of expressing itself. The tension that results when the compulsive command is not carried out is unbearable and is felt as a great fear. By means of a kind of regressionthinking appears as a substitute for decisive acts. Thinking thus takes the place of acting. Depending on how far this process has taken place the compulsionneurosis becomes one of compulsive thinking. Real compulsive acts are only possible by reason of there being a compromise between opposing impulses. The longer the disease lasts the nearer these acts approach and the more plainly they take on the character of infantile sexual acts.
This regression from acting to thinking is assisted by another factor that has its part in the creation of the neurosis. A practically uniform occurrence in the history of a compulsionneurotic is the early appearance and repression of the instincts of looking and desire for knowledge. Where the latter is predominant brooding becomes the chief symptom of the neurosis. The thinking act itself becomes sexualized, for the sexual pleasure which belongs to the thing about which the thinking is done is placed on the thinking itself. The result of such thinking is felt as sexual satisfaction.
Freud finally gives his definition of those productions of a compulsionneurosis which give it its compulsive character. He says: “Those
- 106 -
mental mechanisms become compulsory which as a result of the inhibitions at the motor end of a mental process are undertaken with an expenditure of energy which quantitatively and qualitatively is used for action; in other words thoughts which are the substitute for regressive acts.”
That which breaks through to consciousness as a compulsive thought must be safeguarded against the destroying influence of consciousthinking. We know that this is accomplished before it reaches consciousness by distortion. But this is not its only means. The various compulsive ideas are torn loose from the place of their origin and by the interposition of an interval between the pathogenic situation and the resulting compulsive idea with the result that consciousthinking is misled in its attempt to understand the compulsive idea. In addition, by generalizing the compulsive idea the same object is assured. That characteristic which differentiates compulsive neurosis from hysteria lies not in the instinct life of the patient but in the psychological mechanisms of the patient.
Finally, he says he received the impression as if his patient had three personalities, one unconscious and two fore-conscious between which his consciousness oscillated.
His unconscious comprised the early repressed instincts which can be called the passionate and evil ones. His normal self was good-natured, jolly, considerate, sensible and cultured, but in a third psychological self he held firm to superstition and asceticism. These latter two allowed him to hold two diametrically opposite convictions and philosophies. This latter fore-conscious person contained for the most part the reaction products of his repressed wishes and Freud thinks it probable that had the mental disease continued the pathologic personality would have absorbed the normal.
7. Introjection and Transference.—In this article, Ferenczi amplifies Freud's definition of transference. He shows transference to be the mechanism that the neurotic uses, not only to escape from an insight into his own unconscious, by unloading onto the physician all those emotions which are exaggerated by his unconscious, but also that it is that fundamental psychic mechanism by which most of the symptoms of his disease are produced. His experience has convinced him that the seemingly unmotivated, emotional extravagance, the intense hate, love, or sympathy of the neurotic are nothing other than transference. These exaggerations were for the most part made fun of; but Freud translated the language of the hysteric and showed that these excessive emotions were based on concepts in the unconscious.
The psychic infection which occurs among hysterics is no simple automatic act. The patient adopts the symptoms of another person only when he identifies himself in his unconscious with this person upon the same etiological ground. The extreme sensitiveness of many neurotics,
- 107 -
their ability to project themselves into the lives of others, find their explanation in this hysteric identification. Their impulsive acts of generosity and philanthropy are only reactions to these unconscious emotions. Every humanitarian or reform movement, every revolutionary organization, every political or moral movement, swarms with neurotics. Ferenczi explains these phenomena as due to the transference of their censored unconscious egoistic tendencies to those fields upon which they can expend themselves without self-reproach. Our everyday life also gives the neurotic a rich opportunity to transfer these same prohibited unconscious trends upon allowable fields.
In every psycho-analytic treatment one has favorable opportunity for observing the projection of such transferences. The repressed impulses gradually becoming conscious, turn first towards the physician in their attempt to satisfy themselves. The physician in a properly-done psych-analysis acts as a catalyzer, in that he allows these transferences to be loosely bound to him temporarily, so that the patient can eventually direct and fix them to such objects as will be of benefit to himself.
Ferenczi then shows a few characteristic examples of the transference of hysterical patients to him. These transferences are detected first in the patient's dreams. The repressed Œdipus complex (the love and hate to parents), which is of extraordinary importance in every case of neurosis, uses transference as a bridge to put the physician in the place of the repressed complex. The physician becomes for the time the object in which the neurotic seeks all those hoped-for qualities in the parent, from which, in his childhood, he had derived pleasure. It only takes a less friendly remark, a correction in regard to their duty, or a sharp tone, to unload onto the physician all the repressed, unconscious hate and rage of the patient. It is of tremendous importance to demonstrate such positive and negative transferences. For the neurotic is, for the most part, an individual who believes himself incapable of love or hate. There is nothing which can so shake this conviction as to catch them redhanded in the midst of one of these emotional reactions. These transferences are also important in that they can be made the starting-point in an analysis of still deeper repressed complexes.
The most common means of transference for the patient is naturally the sex of the physician: His female patients attach their unconscious heterosexual fantasies on the physician largely because of the simple fact that he is male; but the hidden homosexual component in every human being makes it possible for men to transfer their sympathy, or friendship, and sometimes the opposite upon the doctor. In a number of cases it was possible for Ferenczi to show that the lowering of the ethical censorship which the consultation room of the doctor brings with it, was increased by the diminished feeling of responsibility on the part of his patients. The knowledge that the doctor is responsible for everything that happens in his office, favorably influenced the appearance of
- 108 -
unconscious, and later conscious, day-dreams, which very often had as their content an aggressive sexual attack on the patient by the doctor. These fantasies ended with a primary refusal on the part of the patient, a repetition of the offense, and the final degradation or death of the doctor. It is in such moral disguises that the repressed wishes of humanity are capable of becoming conscious. In an analysis, one impresses upon the patient the absolute necessity of relating these unworthy hopes just as they may relate everything else that comes into their minds. In the non-analytic treatment of the neurotic, all these fantasies are unknown and may reach an hallucinatory stage, which has resulted in the false accusation of the physician by his patients.
When we grasp as a whole these various manifestations of the transference to the physician, we are decidedly strengthened in our hypothesis: that this practically important manifestation is only one of the general tendencies to transference of the neurotic. This tendency we can regard as the most fundamental characteristic of the neurotic. It also explains most of the conversion and substitutionsymptoms. All neurotics suffer from flight from their complexes. They flee, as Freud says, from the pain-transformed pleasures into illness. That is, they withdraw their libido from certain complexes which in their infancy contained pleasure.
In order to understand the fundamental psychic character of the neurotic, one must compare his acts with that of the dementia præcox and paranoia patients. The dementia præcox severs his interest from the outside world and becomes auto-erotic. The paranoiac would like to do the same but cannot, and therefore projects his interest upon the outside world. The neurosis, in this relation, is diametrically opposite to paranoia. While the paranoiac takes his impulses which have become painful and forces them out of his ego, the neurotic helps himself by taking the largest possible portion of the outside world into his ego. It is similar to a process of dilution, by means of which the free, unsatisfied, unconscious desires become softened. This process Ferenczi calls introjection, in opposition to projection. The neurotic is constantly on the search for objects with which he can identify himself, upon whom he can transfer his emotions. A similar search for objects upon which to project his pain-producing libido, do we see in the paranoiac, and in this way there results in the end the totally opposite characters: On the one hand, the big-hearted, sensitive, easily-roused to love and hate neurotic; on the other, the narrow, suspicious, persecuted or loved paranoiac. The psycho-neurotic suffers from an extension; the paranoiac, from a contraction of his ego.
When one revises the ontogeny of the ego upon these new facts, one comes to see that the paranoiac projects and the neurotic introjects, both being only extreme examples of psychical processes which can be demonstrated in every normal person. It will be objected that this extension
- 109 -
of the circle of one's interests, this identification of the ego with many other human beings, is a characteristic which belongs to the normal, and is especially noted in the great ones of this world. In other words, one cannot bespeak for introjection a mechanism typical and characteristic of the neurotic. Freud, however, maintains that there is no fundamental difference between the normal and the psycho-neurotic person, and Jung says that the neurotic becomes ill in his struggle with the same complexes with which all humanity fights. The difference between the neurotic and the normal person is a quantitative and practically important one. The normal person transfers his emotions and identifies himself with his environment upon a basis much better motivated than the neurotic. In other words, he does not waste so senselessly his psychic energy. A further difference is that the normal person is, for the most part, conscious of his introjection, while in the neurotic they are generally repressed and manifest themselves, indirectly and symbolically, in unconscious fantasies.
The second part of the paper deals with the rǒle of transference in hypnosis and suggestion. Through psychanalysis Freud was able to show that the unconscious contains those instincts which, in the course of the cultural development of the individual, have been repressed. The unsatisfied emotions of these repressed instincts are constantly ready to sate themselves upon persons and objects on the outside world. The parent complexes are among the most important in the life of a human being, as shown by Freud, Jung, Abraham, Stekel, Sadger, and others. They are laid down by the individual in the unconscious before the fourth year. Now, it is a transference to the hypnotizer of these unsatisfied, repressed, unconscious complexes by the patient that is at the basis of the mechanism of hypnosis and suggestion. The possibility of hypnotizing or suggesting to an individual, therefore, depends upon his ability to transfer; or, more briefly expressed, upon the positive, although unconscious, sexual attitude, taken by the hypnotized person towards the hypnotizer. This transference has its primary root in the repressed parent complex. Ferenczi then shows the evidence for the correctness of this view. It is noteworthy how various authors differ in the production of successful hypnosis. They range all the way from fifty to ninety-six per cent. According to the almost unanimous conviction of experienced hypnotizers, there are necessary for this work certain external or internal attributes. Hypnosis is made easier by an impressive appearance on the part of the hypnotizer. If this attribute of masculinity is absent, a stern appearance, sharp look, or a confidence-evoking expression, can take its place. Self-confidence, the reputation of former successes, and the respect that belongs to the medical profession—all have their influence. The commands in hypnosis must be given so firmly and confidently that opposition becomes impossible on the part of the subject.
- 110 -
Extremes of this latter can be accomplished by shouting, inspiring fear through stern tones or expression, or the shaking of the fist. There are other methods for producing sleep—the half-darkened room; absolute quiet; friendly, soft speech, delivered in a monotonous melodic voice while at the same time softly stroking the hair, forehead, or hands. Generally one can say that there are two methods by which one can hypnotize another person and bring him to a relatively powerless obedience and blind faith: they are fear and love. The successful professional hypnotizer instinctively uses every possible kind of fear-inspiring or love-inspiring method. The one is the symbol of the stern or omnipotent father, whom the child blindly trusts, obeys, and believes; and the soft stroking hand, the pleasant, monotonous, sleep-producing words—are they not reproductions of scenes which every child has experienced through the mother. Even hypnotizing by external stimuli, such as crystals, etc., are only reproductions of the fascination that some objects had in our infancy. All the ceremonies and habits that play such an important rǒle when going to sleep are from elements which we derive from our infancy. All these considerations force us to the conviction that the foundation of every successful hypnosis or suggestion is based upon the fact that the hypnotizer is able to call forth or receive those feelings of love or hate which result in the conviction of infallibility similar to that with which the infant regarded the parent. Ferenczi then cites a number of cases illustrating very well this hypothesis. He then goes on to discuss the various manifestations of suggestions and hypnosis, and by the aid of illustrative cases, shows their dependence upon the transference of the parent complexes from the subject to the hypnotizer. In conclusion Ferenczi gives this definition of hypnotism and suggestion: They are, according to this conception, the intentional establishment of conditions under which the unconscioustransference of the instinct of blind faith and absolute obedience to the hypnotizer or suggester can take place. This instinct is present in every individual, being, however, usually repressed by the censor. It is a remnant of the infantile erotic love and fear of the parent.
8. Contributions to Dream Interpretation.—Stekel presents some of the results of his analysis of many thousands of dreams. He relates chiefly various type dreams, and begins with the dream within the dream. The dream within the dream usually portrays the painful reality that the dreamer has experienced. By making it a dream within a dream he eradicates the most difficult situation in his life. The second part of the dream symbolizes life as the dreamer wishes it to be in the future. Stekel relates a number of such dreams, whose analyses prove his statement. He often observes in his patients’ dreams the fact that they go to right or left. He says: “The right way always signifies the way of righteousness; the left, that of crime.” The left usually symbolizes incest, homosexuality,
- 111 -
perversions, etc.; the right, marriage, coitus, etc., dependent upon the moral standard of the dreamer. He has often observed that neurotic dizziness is more apt to go to the left, and thinks this is an important differential diagnostic sign. The dizziness to the right always arouses his suspicion of an organic lesion. For left-handed people the interpretation is naturally reversed. Relatives are frequently used to symbolize the genitals. This symbolism occurs not only in dreams, but also in folk-lore, wit, and the jargon of criminals and the lower classes. Naturally there are dreams in which people represent themselves. One must remember that all dreams are manifoldly determined. One often finds that the emotion in the dream does not seem suitable to it. Stekel lays emphasis on the fact to which Freud called attention: that emotional dreams are among the most important in psychanalysis, and that their affect is justified, however little basis the manifest content of the dream may give. Stekel begins the analysis of such dreams from the affect, and soon finds that the material of the dream has, by transposition, substitution, etc., received seemingly false association with the affect. It is not denied, however, that there are affectless dreams which hide tremendously large affects. An example of the dream that must be read backward comes next, and is followed by a consideration of the problem of death and life in dreams. Death in dreams generally has the significance of life, and the greatest of life's desires often are expressed as the wish for death. Similar psychanalytic viewpoints are equally true for suicide. The kind of death is often influenced by the patient's erotic fantasies. These thoughts have been repeatedly expressed by poets, and philosophers have often illuminated the relations that exist between Eros and Thanatos. Murder in dreams is often a lust-murder, just as in life, and represents nothing other than a strongly-colored, sadistic, sexual act. Stekel has repeatedly heard the following dream from young girls: that they find themselves naked in the street; that a big man attacks them and plunges a knife into their abdomen. In these cases, the dream symbolizes the defloration through violence; it is their honor which is irredeemably murdered. The death of their virginity is the birth of the woman. Homosexual individuals dream that they attack somebody and beat him down with a stick. A dream in which there is a dissociation of the personality is next related, and is followed by an extremely interesting chapter on the symbolism of numbers in dreams. The paper closes with dreams which show the coloring which type dreams obtain through the personality of the dreamer.
9. Report Concerning a Method of Producing and Observing Certain Symbolic Hallucinatory Phenomena.—This method, which had been tried experimentally by A. Maury and G. Trumbull Ladd, does not reveal anything new in the psychology of dreaming which had not been mentioned, at least theoretically, by Professor S. Freud in his “Interpretation of Dreams.” Under the influence of great drowsiness and a
- 112 -
disturbance during that time which tends to prevent sleep, such as a determined effort to think or an external stimulus, the following can be observed. A hallucinatory phenomenon is produced which is composed of a symbol equivalent to that which has been thought or felt at the moment of going to sleep. Silberer lies on a couch when very drowsy and thinks of a philosophical problem. The vain endeavor to hold in his mind a definite portion of the problem results in his seeing (with closed eyes) a plastic symbol, viz.: He asks for information from a sullen secretary, who, bent over a desk, does not in the least allow himself to be disturbed by Silberer's insistence, in fact looks at him indignantly and protestingly. This, his first unexpected and astonishing experience, caused him to repeat the experiment upon suitable occasions, and to observe the results. Two conditions were necessary: First, an extreme need of sleep, and secondly, a determination to think. The conflict between these two antagonistic elements gave rise to this characteristic auto-symbolic phenomenon. Naturally, these two opposing elements must be approximately equal in strength; if this were not so, either sleep or normal logical thought would result. The phenomenon is the result of the transition period between sleeping and waking; in other words, a hypnagogic condition. He divides the phenomenon into three classes, basing his classification not on the kind of phenomenon produced but upon the object or stimulus producing them. The three classes are: First, the material phenomenon; secondly, the functional; and thirdly, the somatic. The rest of the paper relates his results and is of great interest in that it gives experimental proof of that third factor in the dream work which Freud, in the sixth chapter of his “Interpretation of Dreams,” speaks of as “Regard for Presentability.”
10. Concerning the Neurotic Disposition.—This paper is based on Adler's “Study Concerning the Inferiority of Organs.” It attempts to give Freud's teachings concerning the neurosis an organic foundation, by showing that only those individuals acquire certain neuroses, such as hysteria, compulsionneurosis, paranoia, neurasthenia, and anxiety neurosis, who “as carriers of inferior organs have greater difficulties in accommodating themselves to life.” It is in these difficulties, which the aforementioned study treats in detail, that the disposition or tendency to a neurosis lie. Most of the paper is taken up with a very concise synopsis of this study, which does not lend itself to further abstracting. It views the psychological mechanisms of the neurosis from an organically-static conception, as opposed to the Freudian purely dynamic viewpoint. It is one of Adler's early papers, that foreshadows his schism from the Freudian teachings. Adler does not claim for his formulation of the neurosis either completeness or infallibility; but he holds that the following points must be regularly considered:
- 113 -
1. Symptoms that express at the same time manifestations of primaryinstincts and of organic inferiority.
2. Psychic Betrayers of the Feeling of Guilt.
3. IHypersensitiveness which defends itself against degradation, pollution, and punishment.
4. IThe expectation of the above and preparations for protection against them. Fear.
5. ISelf-reproach. Self-accusation.
6. ISelf-punishment. Penance. Asceticism.
7. ICreases of the feeling of guilt. Insufficiencies as the result of organic inferiority. Incest thoughts and hostile aggressions towards the parent of the same sex, or in cases of doubtful orientation in childhood, towards both parents. Masturbation. All other causes of the feeling of guilt can be recognized as substitutions.
8. IAs the result of any possible combination of the above, an inhibition of the aggressive instinct.
11. Freud's Works from 1893 to 1909.—This article is a series of abstracts of Professor Freud's writings from 1893 to 1909, chronologically arranged. It is very valuable for reference purposes, but will not bear further abstracting.
12. Report of Austrian and German Psycho-Analytic Literature up to 1909.—This is an arrangement of Austrian and German psycho-analytic literature which will not bear further abstracting.
- 114 -
Blumgart, L. (1916). Jahrbuch Für Psychoanalytische und Psychopathologische Forschungen*. Psychoanal. Rev., 3(1):90-114