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Emerson, L.E. (1916). Internationale Zeitschrift für Äertzliche Psychoanalyse. Psychoanal. Rev., 3(2):218-223.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: Internationale Zeitschrift für Äertzliche Psychoanalyse

(1916). Psychoanalytic Review, 3(2):218-223

Internationale Zeitschrift für Äertzliche Psychoanalyse

L. E. Emerson, Ph.D.Author Information

(Vol. II. No. 3)

1.   Psychoanalysis and Education. Dr. P. Häberlin.

2.   On the Theory of Inversion. Hans Blüher.

3.   Anal Eroticism. The Tendency to Anxiety and Obstinacy. Dr. Hans von Hattingberg.

1. Psychoanalysis and education.—The question asked by the author is: What has psychoanalysis to do with education. In order to understand

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psychoanalysis wholly, three aspects must be sharply discriminated: (1) Psychoanalysis is a method of psychological investigation; (2) psychoanalysis is also a “sane or consistent system of psychological knowledge, views, theories, presuppositions,” of which the principal one is that of psychical causality; (3) it is a definite therapeutic practice, which goes hand in hand with investigation.

In trying to answer the question of the relation of psychoanalysis to education, one must distinguish between the purpose and the method of education. The purpose is always an ideal, the method a means of reaching that ideal. Psychoanalysis has nothing to do with the purpose of education. In the last analysis, ideals rest on immediate judgments of value. But with possible methods of education psychoanalysis does have something to say.

One of the most important ways of helping education is by means of the individual psychology of the pupil. So far psychoanalysis helps. By its means may be distinguished the “normal” or “retarded.” If the pupil is normal no further analysis is needed, but if not it is necessary. This is true not only of the obviously sick pupil, but also of the normal, occasionally—cases of apparently unemotional lying, anxious states, absentmindedness, etc., need psychoanalysis.

Right here, however, the author warns against the possible misuse of psychoanalysis with children. If things are going on all right the unconscious should be left unconscious. It is only when there are serious disturbances and inhibitions that it should be invoked. The author maintains that psychoanalysis is a two-edged knife, liable to do damage when being used for good purposes. Hence the necessity for almost infinite tact. Naturally, however, the reproach does not belong to psychoanalysis in itself, but to the psychoanalyst who bungles his job. A correct ethical standard is necessarily presupposed.

Psychoanalysis as a form of therapy has something to say to education because its releasing unconscious tendencies, conflicts, etc., is itself a form of education. The author quotes Freud, saying: “There are several issues from the conflict: either the patient may be persuaded that his wish was all right and should not have been repressed, and so induced to accept it, either in whole or in part, or the wish may be led to a higher purpose or end (called sublimation) and thus freed from reproach; or he may be able to see that repression is right and to the automatic and instructive reflex act of repression may be added a judgment of the higher ideals, and thus a partial failure to repress turned to success.” All of this is of pedagogic importance.

Psychoanalytic education, however, is distinguished by its aim, which is health. But psychoanalysis has more than mere therapeutic value, it is also really a bit of the ethical education in honorable character.

2. Theory of Inversion.—The author says there are two ways of solving

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a puzzling process: (1) Find the cause; (2) take up a new viewpoint. In the study of inversion, the first way has been the method most used in the past, but now Freud has done for sexology, in his changing of the viewpoint on a large scale and new theoretical constructions, almost what Copernicus did for astronomy.

A common earmark of all pathographic theories, hence also of theories of inversion, is found in their attempt to find causal relations between processes which are not necessarily bound together at all. This characterizes the theory that inversion is due to degeneration, either in the individual or in the race. Without doubt cases of degeneracy exist which are also homosexual, but one cannot argue from that, that homosexuality is due to degeneration.

The most intelligent theory we have, says the author, is the theory of intermediate stages. According to this theory most men are loved by women. Hence when a man loves another man, it is as a woman. Therefore this feminine trait must be more intensive in him than in other men. Hence inversion is a feminine characteristic in men. This theory fails, however, to meet the objection that many homosexual men are most manly and virile types.

The author makes a sharp distinction between bisexuality and androgynie.

Bisexuality means that a being tends, in principle, in its sexual development, to both sexes; androgynie means that a being is, in its organic structure, endowed with the substance of both sexes.

One can divide the sexual development of a man into two stages— the first extends from birth to the time when the primacy of the genital zones becomes established; the second extends from this to the final object choice. The first is occupied in overcoming auto-eroticism and partial tendencies, the second to the winning of one or the other of the two sexual tendencies.

One theory of inversion is associated with the theory of auto-erotic partial tendencies, namely anal eroticism. Jekels says: “To the active male homosexual the aim is the male anus.” But why should he seek the male anus when the female organ is so much better adapted. The author also criticizes Jekel's theory of activity and passivity as functions of the form of organs.

According to the author the difference between the invert and the normal being lies only in the love-object: “The genesis of his eroticism is the same.” He says he finds always the possibility of coitus with women existing, only the pleasure is less. He finds a “frei flottierende” and “little attached” libido, which does not develop into any permanent structure.

If inversion were the product of two components, as is a neurotic symptom, it could be analyzed, and the disturbing combination changed

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into its innocuous elements, by psychoanalysis. But it is a fundamental error to regard manifest inversion, which has existed from youth, as the result of a pathological process. What Sadger has done has been to show the way or path, of inversion, i. e., he has made clearer the different object choices of the patient. This way, however, is a consequence of inversion, and quite common.

The author distinguishes between manifest and latent inversion. In the case of patients with latent homosexuality, the author, after finding that out, does not go any deeper into the analysis, but devotes his efforts to assuring the patient that he cannot escape his sexuality, and if he accepts that point of view, the patient soon is quite happy. Some capacity for inversion exists in every one, and this is always tending to transform their whole sexuality.

The author maintains there is no pathological origin of inversion. Its phases of development are parallel to those of heterosexual development.

The author maintains that neither the form nor function of the two opposite sexual organs of male and female are responsible for inversion. The one thing responsible is the image (“Imago”) of the beloved sex. This plays the essential rǒle, for which nothing can be substituted. This is the substance of the Eros (passion? or craving?); the different erogenous zones are attributes which may change.

The author develops this idea showing how, in society, there are men who prefer the society of women, and men who prefer the society of men. Here it is wholly a question, he says, of the “Imago.”

The final conclusion of the author is that inversion is a sociological function. There are no binding relations between man and man, which go back to the family, and the family, as is well-known, never forms a foundation for the state. The family is egocentric. Masculine society —a product of inversion—is allocentric with constantly changing nuclei.

The author thinks there is no more use in trying to cure homosexuality than in trying to influence the sex of the embryo by free-will.

3. Anal Eroticism.—The purpose of his paper, says the author, is to make a character study, and to contribute at the same time something to the casuistics of child analysis.

Freud found anal eroticism to be associated with a triad of personal characteristics: orderliness, parsimony, and stubborness. The author finds, on the other hand, in some cases, a high degree of anal eroticism associated only with stubbornness, parsimony and orderliness being lacking. He says he has noticed this especially with women, and also with children a number of times.

The author gives the analysis of a young boy. His father was healthy, but his mother was somewhat nervous. Both were of the vasomotor type. The child had never been seriously sick. He was not a nervous child. He was very intelligent. At about 4 he had pavor

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nocturnus. Towards the end of the year he had an isolated attack of enuresis nocturna. He was observed also at this time to make masturbatory movements with his hands on his genitals, on account of which his hands were tied.

At the age of three he had shown a lively interest in his excretion processes. He called his brother Heinrich, “Helu.” This came from “Heinrich” and “lulu.” (Lulu meant urine and penis.) When he was about 4 ¼ he soiled himself several times, although he had long ago learnt to control the defecation reflex. This only took place when he was walking with a much beloved aunt. Besides the anal eroticism there was a strong urethral and urine eroticism.

He had many fantasies based on this.

As a result of analysis it was found that whenever the boy had an anxiety attack, he also immediately had an impulse to defecate and urinate, and a “feeling” in his penis—also an erection.

The stimulation came from a distended bladder or rectum. Micturition or defecation were not pleasant, in themselves, but the “feeling,” the erection, which was pleasant, came from the smell.

Once the father tried to get him to use a French word that he knew perfectly well. He refused and there was a struggle. It was as if he “would” and he “would not.” Thus “anxiety” became for him both “anxiety” and “pleasure” or “Angstlust,” in the author's words. It was a mixed, pleasant-unpleasant feeling.

The author refers to the close anatomical and physiological relations existing between the nerves of the bladder, rectum, and genitals. He also tells of the case of three colleagues who experienced a spontaneous self-pollution in a state of anxiety due to the necessity of repressing the defecation reflex. A number of illustrations are given showing how the anxiety states initiated, and ran parallel with strongly pleasurable sexual excitement.

One of the differences between “Angstlust” and masochism, says the author, is the absence of stubbornness in the masochism. But while he thinks there is need for distinction he does not show what the complete differences are.

“Angstlust” is essentially an expectation pleasure, a tension eroticism.

The author is of opinion that the pleasure in dangerous sports has its foundation in the same “Angstlust.” He is convinced that in the so-called sporty type anal and urethral erotism plays a certain part. In the gambler, the true gambler, the object sought is the tension, the peculiar nervous excitation of expectation. It is interesting to note that in the true gambler the attractiveness of the opposite sex is almost entirely lost. This is especially noticeable at Monte Carlo.

To sum up: “Angstlust” is essentially a tension pleasure, which in turn is essentially sexual. As opposed to Freud's findings, the author

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fails to find, invariably, orderliness and parsimony associated with anal erotism.

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Article Citation

Emerson, L.E. (1916). Internationale Zeitschrift für Äertzliche Psychoanalyse. Psychoanal. Rev., 3(2):218-223

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