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After you perform a search, you can sort the articles by Year. This will rearrange the results of your search chronologically, displaying the earliest published articles first. This feature is useful to trace the development of a specific psychoanalytic concept through time.

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Freud, S. (1916). The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement. Psychoanal. Rev., 3(4):406-454.

(1916). Psychoanalytic Review, 3(4):406-454


The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement

Sigmund Freud, LL.D.

Translated by:
A. A. Brill, M.D., M.D.

Fluctuat nec mergitur

From the Coat of Arms of the City of Paris


If in what follows I bring any contribution to the history of the psychoanalytic movement nobody must be surprised at the subjective nature of this paper, nor at the role which falls to me therein. For psychoanalysis is my creation; for ten years I was the only one occupied with it, and all the annoyance which this new subject caused among my contemporaries has been hurled upon my head in the form of criticism. Even today, when I am no longer the only psychoanalyst, I feel myself justified in assuming that none can know better than myself what psychoanalysis is, wherein it differs from other methods of investigating the psychic life, what its name should cover, or what might better be designated as something else.

In the year 1909, when I was first privileged to speak publicly on psychoanalysis in an American University, fired by this momentous occasion for my endeavors, I declared that it was not myself who brought psychoanalysis into existence. I said that it was Josef Breuer, who had merited this honor at a time “when I was a student and busy working for my examinations (1880-1882).

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