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(1934). Revue Francaise de Psychoanalyse. Psychoanal. Rev., 21(3):347-359.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: Revue Francaise de Psychoanalyse

(1934). Psychoanalytic Review, 21(3):347-359

Abstracts

Revue Francaise de Psychoanalyse

(Vol. 3, No. 3)

1.   S. Freud. Predisposition to the Obsessional Neurosis.

2.   H. Codet and R. Laforgue. Social Checks and Unconscious Need for Self Punishment.

3.   R. Laforgue. Active Psychoanalytic Technique and the Wish to be Cured.

4.   Marie Bonaparte. A Small Attack of Kleptomania in Larva Form.

5.   Edward Pichon. Short Document on Oneiroscopy.

6.   R. De Saussure. Instinct of Inhibition.

7.   J. C. Flugel. Affective Value of Clothing.

1.   S. Freud. Predisposition to the Obsessional Neurosis. Collected Papers, Vol. 11.

2.   H. Codet and R. Laforgue. Social Checks and Unconscious Need for Punishment.-Abnormal reactions in comportment and apparent psychic troubles in harmony with a need for self-punishment ignored by the subject are multiple. In this work the authors have studied the attitude of an individual dedicated to repeated failure in every attempt for progress in social life, and the profound unconscious determination of that attitude by a repressed sentiment of guilt conducting him. despite his conscious efforts, to repeated social checks, veritably equivalent to punishment. The point of view taken is psychoanalytic. A psychoanalytic observation of such patients gives a doctor the impression and then the conviaion that despite their sincerity the subjects are trying to reproduce the same reactions in all affective situations; it is impossible for them to succeed. For instance: after long study they fail in their examinations; despite their goodness of heart they cannot keep their friends, etc. Consciously, of course, in order to justify their lamentable situation, they blame their heritage, their education, society. In a word, they construct a long series of rationalizations in order to hold their environment responsible for something that is their own fault. They become active misanthropes or else detach themselves from the world in a long sulk. Psychoanalysis generally reveals at the base of the process, an affective situation where a compromise between different affective tendencies is made in the direction of self-punishment. Enjoyment in life, consciously and unconsciously, does not mean for these persons normal success or normal sex life: on the contrary they represent themselves as castrated

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and beaten. Depending on the subject, this is expressed unconsciously in neurotic reactions or consciously in phantasy form. The phantasies accompanying masturbation will depict scenes of corporal beating, prostitution and torture. Perhaps repeated social failures will symbolically furnish the rôle of being beaten or a masochistic voluptuousness may be found in a patent illness like tuberculosis. Again, the need for a beating, materially and symbolically, can el. at the root of much anti-social conduct. This deviation from normal conduct, the writers think, is explained by that well known attitude, flight in sickness. The individual seeks a refuge in neurotic self-punishment in order to escape the anxiety coming from struggle, responsibilities, unmerited successes because guilty, etc. The sense of guilt conies from an (Edipus complex unsuccessfully liquidated. Feeling himself about to realize certain tendencies formerly condemned and repressed, the patient finds the right to live without remorse only at the price of humiliations and renouncements. The aptitude for tolerating remorse, especially that attached to CEdipus complex, is one of the most difficult to acquire. Occasionally this feeling of culpability comes through into consciousness and is projected onto many illusory faults. The fact that the patient chooses this choice of solution is predetermined by affective situations of infancy; either difficulty in liquidation of CEdipus complex, complicated by arrival of other children, premature, incomplete revelations of adult sexual life, etc., weaning, and according to Rank, even birth. The recognition of the fact that the nature of the soil is as important as the quality of the grain, however, does not suppress the value of psychic therapeutic measures for these cases.

The same play of identical mechanisms, the writers think, may be found in schizophrenia and. after their own experience, the psychoanalytic technique can be applied to a schizoid who has not yet become a chronic with success. They also speak of the large rôle parental conflicts play in the etiology and unsuccessful cure of a pathological state.

3.   R. Laforgue Active Psychoanalytic Technique and the Wish to Get Weil.-Originally a conference given at the Congress of Oxford. Freud has said that in some cases an active interest of the analyst is justifiable. One will never learn how to master a phobia if one waits for the patient to decide to sacrifice it himself under the influence of the analysis. He must proceed otherwise by making the patient struggle-against the phobia. LaForgue gives the following case because it seems to confirm several of Freud's counsels. The patient was a man about thirty who had never been able to have normal sexual relations with a woman, ejaculation presenting itself solely in pollution or else in bizarre situations such as dancing, riding in crowded public vehicles, etc. The minute he approached a woman, perhaps just kissing her, ejaculation took place. He had a young friend whom he had first contacted by reason of running over her in his automobile. For four years, every two weeks,

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they had been meeting in a small cafe and spending the evening together, their relations naturally being very passive and the girl seemingly satisfied to play the rôle of catalyzer since her presence alone sufficed to produce the chemical phenomena of ejaculation. There were many other symptoms which were treated, but at the end of a year of analysis, the sexual impotence remained at the same level. Monsieur Laforgue therefore decided to apply Freud's active treatment of phobias.

It seemed that during all these four years, Monsieur M. and his friend had rarely spent the night together since he could not sleep lying beside her. It was suggested they spend several successive nights together. This was accomplished by his taking an hotel room and only returning home (he lived with his mother and sister; his father was dead) in the early morning. Much new material was brought to the analysis and his inability to sleep beside his mistress was conquered. But it developed that he could not appear nude or urinate in her presence. He had never, it seemed, during all their acquaintance asked her to touch his penis. The analyst counseled him to do so. Novel development; his mistress had a horror of the masculine organ and could not be touched herself. Directed by Monsieur Laforgue the patient did a little amateur analyzing, discovered the cause of the phobia, dissolved her repugnance and subsequently his own. But now the young girl, aroused, demanded normal sexual relations and, Monsieur M. had reason to believe, got them with another man. He wanted to ignore this, but he was urged to follow her and learn the truth, which he did, discovering her deception. (From this issued much new material and recollections. As a small boy he had slept near his parents, had observed their sexual relations and as a result had felt enraged and betrayed.) He did not intend to say anything to his mistress about his discovery, thinking he would guard it as an excuse for dropping her later, he said, but Laforgue counseled him to discuss it thoroughly. She gave up the other man and Monsieur M., upon advice of the analyst, continued his relations with her, finally deciding to go away with her for a week's trip. Now the emotional happenings of what had gone before had completely changed the patient's disposition. He was cheerful, optimistic and confiding, which, of course, reacted on the young girl. The first night of their trip they had, with no difficulty, normal sexual relations six or seven times. The sexual impotence again manifested itself for a short time when he was advised to present his mistress to his brother, but finally this last resistance was conquered and Monsieur M. at the end of the analysis decided to marry someone of his own milieu, his mistress, herself, having had an offer of marriage from the man of the betrayal episode. In conclusion Laforgue speaks of the great importance the will to get well has in a successful analysis. It was this (due to the happy influence of the ego and the super-ego on the Id) that helped bring about the cure of Monsieur M. When the patient does not show the desire to get well but, on the contrary, clings persistently to his

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unfavorable symptoms, it is due as we know to the corruption of the super-ego. Laforgue gives an infantile situation where such corruption would take place; a small boy whose psycho-neurotic mother uses him (beating him often because he refuses to obey his father) as a weapon of defense against her husband.

4.   Marie Bonaparte. A Light Attack of Kleptomania in Larval Form.-An apparently normal woman and her son go on a motor tour through England. Crossing over on the boat, the son by mistake buys an extra ticket and from adolescent vanity, does not ask to be reimbursed on debarking. The woman, although naturally prodigal, regretted this extra expense, but said nothing, not wishing to irritate her son. In her room at the hotel that night she notices a new piece of green soap and decides to take it with her the next morning on departure, thinking it will help to make up for the unnecessary expense of the ticket. At the second stop in another hotel, she decides to do the same thing, although the soap here is less attractive. Before closing her bags in the morning, however, she asks her son if he is not going to do the same thing, whereupon follows a discussion as to whether or not this is stealing, and although the woman does not consider it is, she takes out the piece of soap, deciding that it is really not much good and not worth stealing. The genesis of this light attack of kleptomania in larval form, as she calls it, she traces thus: Her father always used an English soap and the small child, whenever she entered his bathroom, smelled the odor of it; it seemed actually a symbol of her father. Her mother had died when she was born, leaving a large sum of money which her father controlled. Jealous servants around whispered that he had stolen from her and although adoring him, the child unconsciously got the idea that he had deprived her of something. On the boat going to England when her son bought the unnecessary ticket and refused to be reimbursed, she again got the idea that her money had been spent unduly, and although consciously a lavish spender, she resented and regretted it and decided in compensation to herself to steal the soap. Now the soap was English; the soap her father had used was English; the soap her son habitually used was English, “Pear's soap,” by a bilingual pun, “father's soap.” Also as a small child she had the habit of calling “savants” (scholars), of which her father was one, “savon” (soap). This soap was then a symbol of virility, the phallus which the castrated little girl considered her father had stolen from her, and richness; the woman took the English soap, substitute for “Pear's soap,” of her father and son as a compensation for the ticket money. As the author says, this observation shows again that each one of us carries in us all the latent possibilities of perversion and neurosis.

5.   Edward Pichon. Short Document on Oneiroscopy.-To prove the justice and adequacy of oneiroscopy Pichon gives the following dream

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and the proof of its correct interpretation: The patient was a woman about forty who had for twenty years suffered from anorexia, colitis, constipation, fatigue and depression. She had also the sentiment of being a stranger in the world and was inhibited in action. Varjous doctors had treated her with more or less success. Between Nina's parents (mother, petit bourgeois, kind; the father, worthless, drunkard, gay dog) there had always been friction, and as a small child most of her time had been spent at one or the other of her grandmothers. Both of them constantly reproached her for her sex and criticized the faults in her which they attributed to their respective daughter- or son-in-law, thus not allowing her naturally to take one of them for a model. At the age of nineteen she escaped by means of mercenary intrigues and at the age of twenty-two was married.

Her first dream was this: “I am at a funeral. I am surprised to see march behind the coffin two nurses dressed in long white blouses and wearing crepe hats with veils. When the procession enters the church, these women go toward the altar and kneel piously, visibly moved. Following them are two women, apparently belonging to the family of the eceased, dressed in black. They have a thick band over their eyes and also a very thick chin band around their chin and cheeks. I wonder how they ore able to direct themselves with these bands over their eyes.”

The principal associations were these: The patient feels, as it were, buried by her neurosis. The band and the chin strap make her think of a young girl she knows who has her neck in a plaster cast. Ill for six months, she is helpless and has only the ceiling of her room to look at. The bands seem as difficult to see through as would be the plaster. The nurses make her think of this girl's mother, whose husband, having had syphilis, should never have married. The two women in black remind her of the funeral of a friend, of her grandmother's. Her grandmothers were always dressed in black.

Dr. Pichon interpreted the dream as follows: The three successive elements of the cortege, the corpse, the nurses, the women in black, represent the three generations of women in Nina's family, herself, her mother, her grandmothers. Between the first and the last there is a reciprocal identification, Nina associating herself now with the corpse, now with the young girl with a band on her head; and the grandmothers represented now by the death of the old friend, now by the two women in black wearing bands. The nurses stood for the mother, the only one who really loved her. But why always the women in pairs? Monsieur Pichon told the patient she was playing, vis a vis her mother, a double life. Then Nina revealed the following which she had managed until now to keep from her physicians. She was leading a double life. Her parents were not dead. She knew where her father was, had once nursed her brother, and saw her mother at frequent intervals, but her husband thought she was an orphan. The happenings in each life she kept separate.

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6.   R. De Saussure. Instinct of Inhibition.-In psychoanalytic literature another force beside and opposed to the sexual force has been described by Freud, first as the censure of conscience erected against the impetuosity of the libido, then as egocentric instincts, instinct of destruction, and finally as aggressive instincts. But none of these conceptions truly account for the dynamic source of the ego instinct. While a source, a seat, a specific excitation and gratification of the sexual and need for nourishment instincts can be described it is impossible to find them for the ego instincts and as a result the description of these psychic phenomena in psychoanalysis has kept a dramatic and philosophical character which is shocking to scientific minds. Monsieur de Saussure in this article aims to formulate the recent discoveries of psychoanalysis in less dramatic and more scientific language by introducing the notion of an instinct of inhibition. The actual terminology of psychoanalysis, he says, creates a difficulty in speaking of the ego instincts. The ego is the conscious part of the personality; it cannot be a source of instincts since these come from the unconscious. If the ego were an activity solely designed for inhibiting the libido, the difficulty would not be so great, but its function is also to adapt our urges to the exterior world. The ego and the instincts of the ego are as different as the ego and the libido. Thus to oppose the instinct of inhibition to the sexual and need for nourishment instincts appears a better solution. This instinct of inhibition should not be confused with the death instinct since it is a phenomenon of economy, nor to the super-ego since it is found in animals in whom there is no evidence of CEdipus or castration complexes.

Sleep is not alone the source of this instinct. Any event invested with it becomes in itself an exciter of inhibition. Inhibition's primary aim, repose, is reflected in order to permit a greater differentiation of responses to certain actions (a mark of progress). Other ways of satisfying inhibition besides sleep are resting, forgetting, physiological anesthesia (not sensing odor or temperature after being in it awhile). Its efforts sometimes can become eroticized, i.e., retention of sperm, urine, fecal matter. Its aim is to conserve the forces of the individual. Introducing this idea of an instinct of inhibition into psychic dynamism does not add anything new to the works of psychoanalysis; it only necessitates a little different formulation of certain problems, which at the same time allows a more scientific expression. Monsieur de Saussure reviews superficially some questions in order to show what perspectives the idea of an instinct of inhibition can open up.

A perception is a force; it is a potential which tends to dispense itself in movement. This perception is immediately invested by different instincts for which it can serve as a motor discharge. It serves in a way to fix the forces which come from our instinctive life. It is a combination of one or several sensations with different instinctive tendencies, the action depending on which force is the stronger. Each instinct invests a

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great number of objects. Many objects are invested simultaneously by different instincts. Rarely does an instinct act in its crude state. It is divided into a great number of forces which are our memories. Memory is affective, positively in ecphoria, negatively in forgetting. The fact of remembering an object depends on the greater or less investment of that object by our instincts. But inhibition can hinder investment. Each memory is then a sort of potential, excitation pushing one to action. Continually these combinations of potentials take place, increasing or diminishing the motor forces depending on whether the investment is made with composition of inhibition instinct or other instincts. Memories generally take some motor issue. They are as reflex arcs interrupted on a part of their course; in the interruption the energy goes over into other reflexes. Thus do ideas become associated in our minds. Every idea has an affective coefficient, an instinctive charge, a potential which demands to be discharged in action. If it meets another idea which can not liberate its motor force, there is an arrest of libido which ends in spilling into other channels until it is either exhausted or finds a discharge. Intelligence does not differ in mechanism from effort we make to find a word we have forgotten. It too is a stay of libido on an idea which does not offer a motor issue; this accumulated energy discharges into other ideas until there is a motor way which leads to relaxing of tension. There is then a perpetual play of combinations which are produced to ease the tension aroused by instinctive solicitations. If we satisfied our instincts always in the same way, as the need for repetition tends to make us, our intelligence would make no progress. It is because we inhibit our habits that a stay of psychic energy occurs which discharges into new ways. There are two sorts of intelligence: (1) Libido expands without inhibition; it tries to invest a greater and greater number of objects because it runs naturally in all ways. (2) Libido is inhibited; it searches other means of expansion, but everywhere it is preceded by investment of inhibition instinct which bars the road. The ego is an ensemble of combinations of perceptions and instincts; an infinitely complex composition. It is a compromise between tendencies of desire and tendencies of inhibition which have invested representations of exterior world. The ego is a filter that the id traverses; the filter can be clogged in some places and broken in others. One should not talk of instinct of the ego since the ego is made of urges which come from other sources. The ego is a relay dynamism and not original. It is formed by inhibiting and expanding systems. It is not all the ego which opposes itself to an instinctive tendency; it is certain objects invested by that tendency which have acquired an affinity for the inhibiting tendencies so that their motor realization is impossible. Super-ego is also a compromise between tendencies of inhibition, the tendencies of expansion and the impressions coming from outside. It is a convenient expression to indicate that outpost, preconscious, where the majority of the inhibiting tendencies are

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united, much as the Œdipus complex represents an outpost of the libidinal tendencies. From it comes the interdictions, but it is already a part of the human drama and it cannot in any way be put on the same plane as the id, instinct of inhibition or exterior world as it is already a compromise between all of them. The CEdipus complex and super-ego are only relays of the libido and inhibition; they are not the source. The opposition between the ego and the super-ego is clue to fact that the super-ego being formed of infantile fears, castration, abandonment, is a powerful center of inhibition. Under pressure of the libido the ego tends to escape the inhibiting automatisms that the super-ego imposes. It doesn't do it completely; the action becomes a compromise between the two forces. The inhibited part becomes what is called self-punishment.

The author questions Freud's definition of aggression. He thinks it cannot be considered an instinct in the same way as sexuality, but he hopes to consider that point at length in another paper.

7.   J. C. Flügel. Affective Value of Clothing.-According to anthropologists and historians, clothes have three principal functions corresponding to a need for decoration, modesty and protection. In the history of the race these three needs appear: decoration, modesty, protection, but ontogenetically the order is protection, modesty, decoration. Due to autoeroticism (sensations of cutaneous nerves, muscular sensations) and narcissism the child does not like the imposition of clothes, but since he must accept them he either suppresses these two pleasures or finds compensating satisfaction in the clothes themselves. Different stages in this process can be marked by types of people. For instance: (1) Persons who have never accepted the sacrifice, take no interest in clothes and are never well dressed. (2) Persons who tolerate them; positive man who wears conventional clothes the stores furnish him without resentment but without enthusiasm. (3) Persons who make of necessity a virtue, become proud of their ability to tolerate these agents of coercion and let their clothes serve not only modesty but morality and the super-ego; they are always well dressed, usually severely, and show a marked preference for white or dark colors. (4) Persons who sublimate the interest in their bodies in their clothes and transfer their exhibitionism to their body clothed.

Many clothes have not only an exhibitionistic value, but for the unconscious they have a symbolic signification; phallic in the hat, shoe, collar, jacket, button, feminine in the belt, veil, garter and, this author claims, uterine, in the fact that some clothes serve as means of protection against a hostile and cold world. To some of the symbols there is a specific ambivalence; for instance, the same clothes can serve the purposes of both modesty and decoration; they can be phallic symbols and for the deeper unconscious, can represent the influence of the super-ego. This is especially true of tight, pressing, severe things, such as helmets, corsets,

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stiff bosomed shirts, etc. And although these clothes may diminish the physical movements of the body they augment the deposable psychic force in two ways: by facilitating sublimation of the instinctive genital energy in phallic symbolism, by rendering suitable to the ego the use of this energy due to the cooperation of the super-ego.

There is evidence also in clothes of the psychic differences between men and women. Women's freer narcissism permits her more splendor, variety and beauty. The fact that man's libido is more concentrated and so his body less charged with eroticism than woman's relieves him of many pudic restrictions; he does not need to cover his head, his breast, his legs, in order to appear modest. But his super-ego is more severe than woman's and this is recognized in the severity and monotony of his clothes. This super-ego influence necessitates a considerable sacrifice on his part of the two primitive pleasures (little chance for sublimation), but in recompense his clothing is rich in phallic symbols and masculine representations (heavy, thick, padded clothes, relatively indestructible, signifying force). His sexuality, phallic and concentrated, lends itself easier to genital symbolism than that of woman's, and it is perhaps for that reason that the erotic value of feminine attire depends mostly on suggestion. The spirit of fraternity and equality which began to reign toward the end of the 18th century necessitated a permanent renunciation by man of certain signs of rivalry, such as sumptuousness and elegance; his attire became and remained more somber, monotonous and uniform. Woman's clothes also suffered a slight modification but being more narcissistic and less social she resisted better than man this mutatory phenomena. Fashion, style, in clothes is created by a complicated mixture of social and sexual rivalry. It could not exist in a rigid hierarchy or complete democracy where there is relatively no difference in rank. It needs different social levels to stimulate its creation. Designers endeavor to design things that will permit changes, variety. They offer one style to the aristocracy and a little later offer them another, giving the first to the bourgeois. But due to mass production, the leveling influence of socialism, and the adoption by women of masculine attire, fashion may soon see a complete victory of the followers and the elimination of expression of rivalry in attire.

More specific tendencies which account for the successive changes in style are: (1) Variation between relative influence of the two motives, decoration and modesty. Sometimes exhibitionism triumphs over modesty and again puritanism demands simplicity and severity. (2) Variations in the placement of exhibitionistic interest, either in nude body or clothes. Sometimes clothes serve to embellish and accentuate the body (chorus girls), and again the libido is concentrated on the clothes themselves, the body serving only as a means of support (robes of ceremony). (3) Variation in accentuation of different parts of the body. During and since the Renaissance the breast was the important part of the feminine body,

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again contrast between the small waist and large pelvis is accentuated, or returning to adoration of Callipygean Venus, the posterior is given imposing proportions. Today (1929) the members rather than the body are the parts admired (short or no sleeves, short dresses). (4) Variation in the age of woman most admired. During the Renaissance, maturity was admired and the emphasis was placed on pelvis and breast. Today, coming from a love of sport and delight in the moving body, it is youth that is in the ascendancy and the svelte, slim figure is the one admired. In this last change also, according to Lowitsch, there is a predominance of phallic symbols in preference to uterine. Clothes constitute a sort of artificial ambient that man interposes between his own body and his environment. And if, as Herbert Spencer pretended, life consists in the continual adaptation of the interior relations to exterior relations, the science of life has surely not the right to neglect this outpost of interior ego that man has annexed to the exterior world for the aggrandizement and embellishment of his organism.

(Vol. 3, No. 4)

1.   S. Feeenczi. On Psychoanalytic Technique.

2.   R. De Saussure. Fragments of Analysis of a Sexual Pervert.

3.   Charles Odier. Money and the Neuroses, Part II.

4.   R. Laforgue, The Mechanisms of Self Punishment and Their Influence on the Character of a Child.

1.   S. Ferenczi. On Psychoanalytic Technique.-Already in English, Ferenczi's Collected Papers.

2.   R. De Saussure. Fragments of Analysis of a Sexual Pervert.- The analysis was not finished because after four months the patient developed pulmonary tuberculosis and left for the mountains, but Monsieur de Saussure thinks there is enough material to warrant the discussion of certain theoretical points. The patient was a man of thirty-one, who had married at twenty-four, but had never had normal sexual relations. His modes of satisfaction were to stand on his head when after a few seconds an ejaculation took place, or to assume the position of a Buddha when again there was produced an ejaculation. He also had a strong foot fetish and putting his naked feet out of bed would cause an ejaculation. During the fifth or sixth seance, he drew various designs of a monster which he said had haunted him since early childhood and which seemed to represent a head with two bodies or a body with two heads. The trauma of infancy which was undoubtedly a very early observance of parental intercourse (of which this monster was a reflection) was not brought to memory but from the patient's associations, the following was deduced. At the period of positive (Edipus complex, a conflict

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engendered by the view of parental intercourse arose. The small boy interpreted the sexual act as a sadistic assault of the father upon the mother, but the mother's legs (seen from below) reminded him of scissors or a nut cracker and thus she too, became a punishing, castrating agent. (He spoke of and designed a toothed vagina. At the time of his marriage, he was greatly surprised to find his wife did not have a penis against which to struggle.) He identified himself with his father and mother and his super-ego became hermaphroditic. From this sadomasochistic composition it resulted that all his erotic manifestations satisfy at the same time his libidinal desires and his self-punishment needs. For instance, in the foot fetish. Primitively the foot was only a substitute for the monster, symbol of intercourse, then it began to stand for the penis he thought his mother had. The thing which attracted him the most about it was the bifurcation of the big toe (representing the bifurcation he felt in the monster which in reality was the joining of the bodies witnessed in parental intercourse-also mother's genital organs where he wished to place his own penis), and as a small child he had the habit of walking on hard ground with stones stuck between his toes, or else he would force a stone into the sole of his foot-thus experiencing sadistic joy of penetration and masochism of pain felt (the base of the foot was invested with feminine libido and the toes masculine-the whole foot was masculine, he liked to see it growing, i.e., in erection). At puberty, he heard of Spinosa's asceticism and wishing to harden himself would put his feet out of bed, but very soon the sight of the big toe bifurcation caused a strong genital excitation and later erection and ejaculation (again self-punishment and libidinal satisfaction). At puberty, he began to masturbate. A sense of guilt followed and in an endeavor to resist the temptation, he would stretch himself out stiff or stand on his head. Soon the effort, the tension of these positions would produce an ejaculation, the same sado-masochistic composition. (In both instances the whole body instead of the genitals was eroticized; it stood in his fantasy for erect penis.) He did exercises; took the position of Buddha and again was produced an ejaculation (the author relates this to anal regression apparent in his associations).

His inability to get normal satisfaction from his wife was due to many reasons. His long ignorance of sexual relations (never knew until a doctor told him at 22), his manifest ambivalence toward women, his fetishism, his repressed sadism and strong autoerotic tendencies, all this could only lead him to a very passive attitude toward women. During intercourse he wanted no movement either on his own or his wife's part, in the first instance because he expected her to bring him the satisfaction and in the latter from fear of the toothed vagina and castration. She stood for his super-ego and was a protection against his fetish. Also, when he approached her it was more the inverted aggressive instincts than the instincts of the id that were loosened (already a reason for

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impotency). Instead of being the object of the libido, she was an identification with the father and was in this sense at least, the symbolic object of the repressed homosexual tendencies. She was also an identification of the mother (seven years older; ideal woman one should not soil). In reality intercourse was a return to the mother's breast besides containing all the desires and fears of initial trauma. On the basis of what has gone before, the author diagnoses the case as perversion (perversion is an undisguised instinct in the conscious; it is a liberating issue for normal repressed sexuality). He eliminates (1) schizophrenia, because outside his sexual life, the patient lead a normal life well adapted to reality; (2) hysteria, because the instinct is not disguised and is accompanied by enjoyment; (3) obsessional neurosis, because there is no dissociation between the erotic and the self-punitive instincts.

3.   Charles Odier. Money and the Neuroses, Part II.-In the first part of this article, Tome 11, No. 4, Monsieur Odier showed by means of clinical cases, the mechanisms and end of the symbolic function of money in a major neurosis. In this second part he discusses the difficulties this symbolic function causes in the social adjustment of mentally sane or slightly nervous people. To a young child, money has no real value; he knows it only as something precious. At an oral level, he represents it symbolically as milk, the breast, at an anal, as the contents of the intestinal canal, and at a genital, as power, virility. It is after the installation of the super-ego only that he learns its social value. Contrary to what one might expect, however, it is the first period when knowledge of money is excluded from pedagogy, and not the second that decides an individual's future social attitude toward money; this, due to the symbolic function of money. Now during the first six years of a child's life, he loves everything which is useful to the conservation and pleasure of the ego; he hates anything which is taken from him or causes him pain. The possessive and captivative tendencies (system C.P.) reign supreme. After the instauration of the super-ego, he learns a secondary relation with the exterior world, consideration of the interests of others, and the oblational tendencies (system O.) begin to develop. The young ego accepts this moral relation, personal interest-interest of others, very painfully and slowly because there is no solid basis for it and because the Id refuses it as a biologic danger. Hence, from now on the human soul becomes the theater of perpetual oscillations. Between these two poles, C.P. and O., it searches to find in a more or less stable and happy fashion the point of intermediate equilibrium. Especially is this true in all pecuniary relationships between people. By giving several examples of his patient's dreams on the day preceding or following the “monthly reckoning,” Odier proves the undeniable reality of an antithetical pecuniary dualism, due as he shows not to cultural, educational or financial conditions (which influence only its form) but to this

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constant battle between the two systems C.P. and O. Evidences of the conflict are always present, sometimes in a compromise which indicates a more normal adjustment; sometimes in a compensation, showing an established neurosis; and again in symptoms of greediness, generosity, prodigality, scrupulism, etc. No one of us ever succeeds in entirely killing the nurseling within us and on how well or ill we manage to suppress our libidinal infantile and perverse instincts, symbolically represented, depends our healthy attitude in monetary questions.

4.   R. Laforgue. The Mechanisms of Self Punishment and Their Influence on the Character of a Child.-This was originally a conference given at the Congress of International Education in Elseneur, August, 1929. After giving a brief resume of auto-punitive mechanism formations and their way of operating (super-ego sometimes too tyrannical, ensuing unsupportable anguish; way out-punishment, psychic or organic illness or moral suffering following behavior the cause of social checks or public detention), and remarking on the supporting part masochism plays in these reactions, the author gives several examples of how these mechanisms might be expressed in children with whom the teachers would come in contact. For instance-Pronounced negativism in child; first reaction to any influence, “No,” opposed even to himself, consequently comprehension and learning slow since he must first overcome own negativism. An understanding of the child, patience and indulgence, not letting one's self be irritated by his behavior, of greatest service to him. Child, apparently an idiot; super-ego does not allow him to be intelligent because then he would be loved by his parents and teachers; intelligence might aid in the study of sexual problems (which are tabu), hence must not be developed. Masochism may also be operative in teacher's corporal punishment of children. The author hopes for a closer cooperation between teachers and psychoanalysts.

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Article Citation

(1934). Revue Francaise de Psychoanalyse. Psychoanal. Rev., 21(3):347-359

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