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Jones, M.V. (1935). Revue Française de Psychanalyse. Psychoanal. Rev., 22(3):314-333.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: Revue Française de Psychanalyse

(1935). Psychoanalytic Review, 22(3):314-333


Revue Française de Psychanalyse

Margaret V. Jones

(Vol. IV, No. 3)

1.   Marie Bonaparte. The Seventy-Fifth Birthday of Freud.

2.   Anna Freud. Introduction to the Psychoanalysis of Children.

3.   Melanie Klein. The Psychological Principles of Infantile Psychoanalysis.

4.   Ernest Jones. Fear, Guilt and Hate.

5.   Dr. Helene Deutsch. Hysterical Neurosis of Fate.

6.   J. R. Beltran. Psychoanalysis in Criminology.

7.   S. Nacht. Remarks on a Case of Obsessional Neurosis with Sado-Masochistic Representations.

8.   A. Hesnard. Contribution to the Study of Erotic Phantasies.

9.   A. Hesnard. New Contribution to the Psychoanalytic Study of the Hypochondriacal Psychoneurosis.

10.  R. Laforgue. Remarks on the Erotization of the Social Relations of Man.

1.   Marie Bonaparte.—The Seventy-Fifth Birthday of Freud. —A short résumé of his life and publications, with hearty wishes for continued health and production.

2.   Anna Freud. Introduction to the Psychoanalysis of Children. (This is already in English in book form.—Unlike the adult, the child does not come to an analyst of his own free will, nor in many cases is he conscious of his illness, or has he any desire to cure it; hence, before an analysis, properly speaking, can be undertaken, a time of preparation is necessary. In this chapter Anna Freud shows how in several cases she succeeded in making the child “analyzable” Once she made herself the ally of a little girl against her own wickedness. In another case she became the ally of a little boy against his environment. Again, in ordsr to make a little boy conscious of his illness, she accentuated the seriousness of his illness and endeavored to put him in opposition.

3.   Melanie Klein. The Psychological Principles of Infantile Psychoanalysis. Abstracted in The Psychoanalytic Review, Vol. XVIII, No. 3.—The special and primitive particularities of children's mental life necessitates a technique especially adapted to them, consisting in analysis of their play. By means of that technique it is possible to reach the most deeply repressed fixations and experiences, and to have a happy influence

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on the development of the child. It is simply a difference in technique, not in principle of treatment…. The method of play guards all the principles of psychoanalysis, transfer, resistance, infantile instincts, repression and its effects, primitive scene, and reaches the same results as classical technique. It is simply, by its technical methods, adapted to the child's mind.

4.   Ernest Jones. Fate, Guilt and Hate. [Appeared Int. Revue.]

5.   Dr. Helene Deutsch. Hysterical Neurosis of Fate. —Analytical experience leads one to accept the dispositional factor in neurotic conflicts; meaning by disposition, both experiences lived at a precocious period and also innate constitutional receptivity. The analogy between a recent actual neurotic conflict and a traumatic event of childhood may be due to the fact that a non-liquidated psychic event of childhood has the tendency to be ultimately lived anew and reproduced, or to a special receptivity reacting neurotically on an accidental happening. Infantile life makes certain adaptative demands on the child. Not all children normally surmount them. This inability to surmount entrains different modalities of pathological reactions. The child lives in a stage of constant conflict. At a certain phase he may react to the conflict causing an actual infantile neurosis. Again, he may be perfectly healthy until some time later when an analogous privation that he cannot support causes the neurosis to appear. Still again, the infantile neurosis has from the beginning the character of a definite psychic infirmity. The neurotic modality, then, is conditioned by a constitutional factor which is revealed usually in infancy. After exposing a case of hysterical neurosis of fate, the author in this article discusses the difference between a neurosis of fate and the neurotic character.

The patient was a girl of twenty-five, who came from America for treatment. In her psychic life she had succumbed to the same difficulties and pathological fixations as subjects presenting a grave pathological state, but she herself presented no symptoms and never suspected, any more than her relatives, the pathological character of her existence. She was attractive, cultivated, living at home. Her childhood had been perfectly regular except for an inability because of internal difficulties and inhibitions to satisfy an intense desire for study and subsequent career. Very young she had become engaged to a cousin of whom she was affectionately but not passionately fond. He admired the feminine side in her too much, scorning her intellectual interests. Despite his love for her, he was sometimes unfaithful, but she never was conscious of any jealous feeling. On an ocean trip she met an older man, married for the second time, and apparently, she thought, very much in love. Then one day he confessed that he was very unhappy; he could not forget his first wife. Immediately our patient fell passionately in love. The phrase “to be

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loved as the dead one was loved” acted on her like a clap of thunder. She broke her engagement, he left his wife, and they entered into a liaison. A little time afterwards the wife fell ill and the husband was obliged to return and take her to a sanitarium. Our patient did not protest and felt no jealousy. She went on a trip herself and met an old friend in whom she was not interested, but with whom she did not hesitate to have sexual relations. When she became pregnant they decided hastily to be married. Then she changed her mind, was aborted, and returned penitently to her lover. He took her back, divorced his wife, and they set a date for their marriage. Before this could happen, however, the patient tried to commit suicide. The lovers separated and our subject appeared for treatment. Two other times, once at the age of twelve and again during her analysis, she became infatuated and involved with a widower who had adored his first wife.

Like a red thread, a tragic fate seemed to cross the life of this patient. She could provoke and feel love, but every love affair ended in deception. Was deception, perhaps, asks the author, the normal destiny for her of every love relation? As a small child she had adored her father and her affection was returned. When she was four a brother arrived, equally attractive and brilliant, it developed, and he became the preferred one of the father. Another typical reaction was the attraction widowers had for the patient. The description these men gave of their lost loved ones seemed to apply to herself; their sadness reacted on her like a philter of love. The death already accomplished of the other woman seemed to relieve her of the necessity to kill; for, as we might expect, a father fixation was at the center of the neurosis. Her first fiancé was a paternal imago and vis d vis of him; she was playing a feminine, hence servile (her mother was her father's slave) rôle. This she consciously resented. Her second fiancé, on the contrary, placed her on an equal footing, making it impossible for her to play the humble devoted part of the mother. Unconscious rebellion and attempted suicide followed. Another reaction to remark is her conscious lack of jealousy. Analysis showed that, unconsciously, jealousy determined many of her neurotic actions. A long time afterwards, when her cousin had ceased to interest her, if she found herself in a certain situation related to his infidelity, she became very sad and made a minute search for proofs of his infidelity. When her second fiancé took his wife to a sanitarium she immediately, as if in retaliation, became pregnant by another man. This reaction was conditioned by the anchorage of her psychic life to the non-liquidated feeling of jealousy toward her brother.

Such displacements, retarded reactions, compulsive repetitions, are also the property of the normal soul; it is only the quantity and the degree of interior dependence that they provoke which forms the factor putting them under the heading of neurosis. The neurosis of destiny, fate, is a

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state imposed on the ego, apparently by the exterior world, and recreated with an incessant regularity. The neurotic character offers in opposition to this neurosis of destiny more diffuse disharmonies in relation to the exterior world. The difference between them is a quantitative one; it is floating and often hard to distinguish. The former is more accessible to analytic treatment. An hysterical neurosis of fate is one which leads back to the suppressions produced at genital stage.

6.   J. R. Beltran. Psychoanalysis in Criminology. —The author of this article was one of the first to be interested in the application of psychoanalytic principles to criminology. He lives in Buenos Aires. While not losing sight of the value of other methods, he remarks the number of cases in which a sexual complex was at the base of the prisoner's offense. He gives at length the case of a young pastry cook who shot his erstwhile employer. The cook, it developed, had a homicidal mania, result of a mother complex. As a young boy he was able to cure his mother's headaches by holding his hands on her head. During adolescence he became intensely interested in hypnotism; read several books, attended many hypnotic seances where he was easily hypnotized, and finally, in an endeavor to become an hypnotizer himself, tried to control his instincts. It seemed to him that a hypnotizer could not allow himself any sexual indulgence; masturbation, perhaps, but not normal intercourse (this in reality fidelity to mother). To this end he frequented public houses, and if he were unable to resist women he punished himself by burning parts of his body, slashing his stomach, etc. Ultimately he arrived at complete self-mastery, and about this time the idea of killing someone appeared. An inner voice, a face in his glass of wine, demanded a victim. (This, the author says, was due to projection following cruel self-punishment.) Once he tried to kill his brother, another time a prostitute. Finally, rationalizing that the fact his old employer would not give him a job could serve as a pretext and help him with the judge, he shot and killed the man for whom he had once worked. This case also showed a marked regression of the libido to a narcissistic level.

7.   S. Nacht. Remarks on a Case of Obsessional Neurosis: Obsessions and Sexual Perversions. —It is often difficult without a profound analysis to affirm the existence of libidinal satisfaction in an obsession. The case reported in this article in its symptoms exaggerates the relationship between these two and thus makes evident facts which in other cases are often obscure. It shows also how a person exposed to an unconscious conflict succeeds in placing himself finally in an unsupportable position, and how a neurosis, best solution for the unconscious, is released.

Jean, a young man of twenty-six, came to the author complaining of a continual fatigue and weariness and an obsession of sado-masochistic representations. It seemed whenever he tried to read or study obsessional

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representations of a child being beaten by a man, by a woman, a woman being beaten by a child, appeared. They were accompanied by sexual excitement, erection, and sometimes ejaculation. They also appeared during sexual intercourse if there was lack of excitement. The symptoms rendered any activity, any application or study impossible. Analysis showed that the neurosis was conditioned by poor identification. Jean's father was a successful South American manufacturer, a good, kind, work-a-day man, whose only interest was his business. His mother, a cultured, refined woman with aesthetic tastes, although fond of her husband, scorned him. Jean had adored his father—all his early memories were of his father caring for him, never of his mother—but at the age of eight a small sister had been born, claiming part of the father's attention, and Jean, feeling abused and deceived, had turned all his love into hate. The super-ego had not permitted this hostility, and so consciously Jean became neurotically submissive and attached to the father. He had undoubtedly tried to identify himself with his mother—he had her tastes and tendencies—but an unconscious sense of guilt had prevented him. The reasons for this sense of guilt were, first, the Oedipus complex. Jean's mother had the habit of complaining to him of his father's inadequacies, saying, “I should have married someone like you,” and this wish, so similar to Jean's primitive wishes, constantly aroused the Oedipien situation, rivalry with the father and fear of castration. To be like his mother, to realize in man what she was in woman, became then condemned and impossible, for to be like her seemed to bring her nearer to him. Becoming like her also seemed unconsciously to be taking her side and the side of her relatives (there had been family disagreements) against the father, and this because of conscious submission due to unconscious hostility was forbidden. Hence, the poor boy was buffeted back and forth between the two, not being able to identify himself with the father because of mother condemnation, or with the mother because it separated him from the father. Until twenty-six he stayed at home trying to interest himself in his father's business; his life lacked interest and satisfaction, but he maintained his psychic equilibrium. At twenty-six, by mutual consent, he came to Paris to study architecture, and immediately the neurosis appeared. Its aim is apparent. It was to prevent him from breaking away from the father. Any aesthetic enjoyment, anything which his father would not understand or enjoy, was forbidden. The general sense of the symptoms, then, was this: to prevent by their existence the accomplishment of acts considered by the unconscious, in reference to the father, guilty. This check constituted a self-punishment demanded by a latent culpability. The structure, the mechanism of the sado-masochistic representations, was this: The father in Jean's childhood had condemned masturbation. Jean had been unable to suppress it, so he punished himself by imagining his father beating him. Later this phantasy became

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eroticized and procured itself libidinal satisfaction. It was related also to the feminine passive rôle Jean played in reference to the father, and to noises he had heard, arousing condemned desires, during early years in his parents' room. The woman beating the child was the mother beating him, meaning she did not love him, lessening the sense of guilt, and the child beating the woman was an attempt by Jean to assert his masculinity.

The author considers he has shown in this article how difficulties in the psycho-affective development of the child end later in psycho-affective deficiences, capable of making the individual put himself in a situation where the neurosis must appear, also the aim of the neurosis, and the sense of the symptoms. The patient, despite an incomplete analysis, was completely cured. The author remarks on the success of the treatment that the patient was treated five or six months after the first appearance of symptoms; they were so intense that the patient's whole life was paralyzed, causing a strong will to be cured; during the third month of treatment Jean's mother died. The case is diagnosed as obsessional and perverse.

8.   A. Hesnard. Contribution to the Study of Erotic Phantasies. — The author in this article discusses adult erotic phantasies, not phantasies in general.

I.   General Character. 1. Variable, unfolding on a certain number of fundamental erotic themes, procuring pleasure sometimes as far as masturbation, again only provoking voluptuous, indeterminate dreams, and again ending without masturbation in complete orgasm. 2. Perverse, reduced regularly to a single erotic theme; example, child being beaten, masochistic; some part of body or animal, fetichistic. “If some are of a human or natural appearance, others have nothing in their appearance which recalls ordinary sexual aims. Like in some dreams of pollution, their sexual value is dissimulated and escapes another entirely, so much does their expression proceed from a close personal symbolism. Sometimes they are caressed for hours by the patient at will as an aid to a monotonous existence, again they are obsessive and cause a great deal of anxiety and inferiority. In certain schizoid states they take on such exuberance that they turn the subject from spontaneous interest in exterior reality.”

II.  Evolution Debut. 1. Their evolutive debut can be lost insensibly in obscurities of infantile erotic awakening, but their distinctive character is not acquired until the end of the latency period or at approach of the adult sexual need. 2. Some are born during masturbatory dreams; others only appear late in the adult after certain sexual checks, and in virtue of a regression. Example: (1) A patient with intense and persistent homosexual phantasies which did not appear until he was eighteen, after several unsatisfactory normal sexual acts; related to infantile sexual initiation by comrades of his own age. (2) A patient with phantasy of child being

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beaten which appeared during the war, a period of forced celibacy, at thirty years of age; related to beating scenes imagined when a child after reading “Bibliothique Rose” (3) Homosexual phantasies which did not appear until after several years of marriage; related to mother fixation never completely extinguished.

III. Clinical Psychoanalytic Characteristics. 1. Subject himself is frequently represented but usually in dissimulated manner; it is only on reflection or in therapeutic analysis that he appears clearly. 2. Certain fundamental affective facts appear veiled in the apparent contents of the phantasy before the individual analysis has clearly indicated its profound significance, i.e., infantile incest and castration. The frequency of these two great affective unconscious motives appears to explain that phantasies are essentially the cause of the persistence of guilt—more or less unconscious, primitive, and Oedipien—of which they represent the object and threat of punishment. This has two consequences: (1) Psychological; sentiment of inferiority in life with its corollary, tendency to self-punishment in behavior. (2) Economic; spending of psychic energy, feebleness of psychologic tension.

IV.  Relation of Erotic Phantasy to Erotic Behavior of Patient. 1. No collaboration between the two; often are opposed and mutually prohibitive. 2. Some more or less difficult collaborating relations; rare patients who realize their phantasies in perverse play and become perverts. As their play procures for them real satisfaction they abandon the phantasy except in impossibility of perverse realization. 3. Patient succeeds in utilizing his phantasy as a means of excitation or even of sexual realization. (1) Culture of phantasy as mental aphrodisiac used ultimately for real aims; example, homosexual who by means of masculine nudity phantasies, etc., succeeded in normal coitus. (2) Imitating, incompletely and hypocritically, perverts (whose conduct they dare and cannot adopt because of super-ego composition), they try by grafting phantasies on the normal sexual act or reciprocal masturbation to give an innocent perverse aspect to real gestures. This is difficult for the masochist, probably because neuropathic masochism is fundamentally narcissistic, but homosexuals, nearer erotic reality, often become masters in the art of utilizing these phantasies and rendering them little by little viable. Unfortunately, however, this camouflage imposes the same feeling of guilt that the phantasy and Oedipien anxiety gave birth to, so that the sexual act each time augments depression and sentiment of inferiority. (3) Transform phantasies into perfectly realizable whims, allowing satisfaction in normal acts; examples, dress woman as young boy, homosexual; surround sexual act with certain exciting tinsel (yellow boots, etc.), fetichist. “Certain phantasies in adolescents are vague, embryonic, and cannot be materialized in acts. With age a perverse instinct, fetichistic, exhibitionistic, masochistic, is disengaged”

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V.   Classification. “Because most phantasies are predetermined by instincts of different nature, classification is a delicate job; example, phantasy of a penis threatening anus is revealed by analysis to be more masochistic than homo; in practice, however, one can class them, schematically, after the predominating perverse tendency.” 1. Sadistic— cruel, horrible character; homicide, mutilation, bleeding wounds, decapitation, cannibalism. Castration is expressed without ambages or travesty. When the blows are light—beating, tying up, soiling, humiliation, etc.— it is a sadistic phantasy turned into masochism, the subject becoming the object. Sadistic phantasies are nearer reality and more charged with efficient aptitudes, less symbolic and infantile than masochistic. 2. Masochistic—usually symbolic representation. They are very puerile and usually have the nature of those exercised commonly in reality by teachers and educators on the persons of naughty children. They are near reality but reality of an infantile nature. Castration is dissimulated; child is hit on the body, never on sexual organs or buttock. The fault which brings about the punishment is usually veiled allusion to masturbatory activities. In reality, primitive infantile fault of which it is question if included in the Oedipien situation; symbolically, imagined masochistic act, imagined with a loved parent generally, represents incest. Phantasies of feminine situation in man, passive position, pregnancy, childbirth, related to masochism. 3. Exhibitionistic—subject exhibits or is made to exhibit himself before witnesses. Scene often goes as far as masturbation, seldom coitus. Witnesses may be homo- or hetero-sexual. Phallic exhibition common in men; mammary or total nudity exhibition common in women; exhibition of buttock (J. J. Rousseau) common in masochists but not necessarily homosexual. Personal experience of author inclines him to think the origin of the exhibitionistic phantasy is most often in the converting into passivity of an active scoptophilic tendency—infantile or juvenile—of an incestuous nature and incompletely repressed, and that the fixation of all exhibitionistic urges in general has, above everything, for affective motive, the tendency to remove castration. 4. Scoptophilic phantasies are phantasies characterized by the fact that the subject imagines a sexual spectacle in which he does not participate himself. They are nearer reality than exhibitionistic phantasies in the sense that they are the result of the culture of infantile erotic curiosity whose very partial repression has ended simply in suppressing the passage to the act without modifying the primitive objective activity. All the intermediates can be found between these phantasies and vulgar erotic scenes of pornographic description; coitus of others, obscene linking of many couples where the hand and the mouth are associated with sexual organs, collective exhibitionism—hetero- and homo-sexual—visions of corporal body in different positions (buttock in air, etc.), evocation of excremental acts. Bestial phantasies, dogs in erection, etc., common in women. 5. Fetichistic

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phantasies—evocation of fetich, corporal or extracorporal, with or without sexual act—generally, masturbatory and sometimes associated with human body, even the mother. 6. Homosexual—they are nearer realizable perversion than pure imagined narcissism since they evoke a human partner in more or less normal conditions.

VI.  Psychoanalytic mechanism—most original, if not the most interesting point of the study. It differs in many respects from the mechanism of the dream, symptom, and non-erotic phantasy. 1. Symptom comes from an erotic need ignored by the subject and no longer recognized as enjoyment; erotic phantasy comes from pleasure following an effective, successful, satisfying effort to force the sexual censure into an at least relative accord with the super-ego. Its psychology seen from a psychoanalytic angle is situated on a special and unique plan, the psychic erotic. 2. Phantasy mechanism has same unconscious mechanisms—condensation, transference, camouflage, etc.—as dreams, but beyond the deterrence of the repressed desire according to the fundamental Freudian formula there is a mechanism which appears to be specific, comparable to that of the perversion, but on another plane, dominated and imposed by narcissistic attitude; there is passage into the psychic conscious sphere of the forbidden instinct, as in the obsession (symptoms with which it coexists often), but the passage takes place with conservation of inherent pleasure in the satisfaction of that instinct, and not as in the obsession transformation of the pleasure by regression into a sado-masochistic need. The fact that satisfaction remains entirely narcissistic, unable to be lived externally in acts, probably accounts for this indulgence of the censure; this inability of the phantasy to be lived in any way except internally is the punishment which permits the subject to buy his voluptuous enjoyment. Action of super-ego is limited to renouncing primary aggression, that is to say, erotic action. Case of exhibitionistic phantasy given in which enjoyment instead of being allied to the idea even of the function as in the classic masochistic phantasy is allied to profoundly dissimulated latent anxiety.

VII. Practical Scientific Interest. 1. It constitutes the best way of penetrating rapidly from the start to the center of the patient's sexuality and convinces the patient of the significance of the fundamental perverse motive of his morbid sexual life. 2. It permits the analyst to easily convince the patient of a better and more advantageous way of enjoying his sexuality.

1.   A. Hesnard. New Contribution to the Psychoanalytic Study of the Hypochondriac Psychoneurosis. —Due to the many diverse forms in which the hypochondriac neurosis appears, its psychoanalytic mechanism has so far only been sketched. An attentive psychoanalytic study of even the simplest cases will always affirm a more or less profoundly dissimulated

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psychogenesis; example, the case reported by the author [in Rev. Françahise de Psych., Vol. 3], of Andre, a young man of seventeen, who, as a result of mother fixation and castration fear augmented at puberty by threats of a stupid confessor, had castrated himself and diffused erotic satisfaction over his whole body, causing hypochondriac anxiety, loss of weight, hypoesthesia in genital region, etc. In the analysis of serious cases, expressed clinically by a delirious interpretation of hypochondriac impressions and by psychopathic social reactions, it need not surprise one to meet a manifest psychogenesis going back to fundamental infantile conflicts, especially Oedipien situation. It is such a case that Hesnard exposes in this article.

Because of the patient's resistance a real or profound analysis was not practiced; but this inability to obtain free associations, dreams, etc., should not prevent one from applying psychoanalytic interpretations to symptoms, since a minute clini'cal examination of any psychosis (recon-stitution of intimate psychic history of the patient, interpretation of delirious ideas, and, in general, the contents of the psychosis) will bring to light the psychoanalytic processes. The repressed and repressing instances in the psychopath transpire easily in the psychic symptomatology. One might even say that as little as the patient allows therapeutic influence to penetrate, the more will he allow repressions freely and impudently to appear in the apparent signs of his mental disorder. This because: (1) psychic disorganization (ego-super-ego, Id no longer recognizable) and appearance of repressed instincts in another psychic plan; (2) powerful and massive regression to infancy, particularly Oedipien situation and its sadistic derivatives. All psychopaths make their imaginary world of infantile attractions and repulsions; some even reproduce primitive Oedipien situation (possessive desire for the mother, aggression toward the father). This reproductoin naturally calls forth in the adult a sense of guilt, regressive and intensified. To escape it, the psychopaths travesty exterior reality in different ways, in particular by the hypochondriac desexualization and paranoic projection of which the following case is an example:

Marie, Spanish, of Jewish stock, a woman of thirty-eight, erstwhile lyric artist and dancer, who for three years had presented symptoms of hypochondriac depression with permanent anxiety, combined with ideas, badly systematized, of persecution. She had an extreme asthenia and a very painful coenaesthetic state. Her whole body felt paralyzed, her eyes empty and very sensitive to light, her senses hyperasthenic, her teeth long, her stomach inflated, vulva withered as that of an old lady, vagina closed, etc. She had no longer any sex. Her muscles were relaxed, feet and figure had lost their line, blood did not circulate. She was finished; felt no emotion, had no desire to live, etc. She was careless of her personal

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cleanliness, exhibited herself without modesty or coquetry, and now and then with a stereotyped gesture put her hand on her vulva or anus, “trying to push them back into place” She attributed her condition to criminal treatments, moral sufferings, and repeated nervous shocks. She had determined despite her family to succeed in the musical profession, and she was beginning to achieve her purpose when several unfortunate engagements and material worries, augmented by the father's refusal to advance her money, caused her a great deal of anxiety. Her lover left her; she went to the seashore, where for lack of money she was poorly fed, and from then began a physical fatigue and demoralization. A younger sister offended her; Maria revolted, stole a pair of shoes in a store (half consciously), and then followed the deluge: consultations with practicians and specialists; modest clinic from which she fled in midwinter; electrical treatments which unnerved her; experimental methods which she considered cruel; a time of acute mental trouble at home under supervision of a trained nurse whom patient accused of being her father's mistress and trying to poison her (period from which she dated her actual suffering); a treatment by a Dr. X of London, who had helped her but whom her sister demanded she leave because of pecuniary difficulties. At moment of treatment with author she would see no one but the mother, whom she surrounded with a tyrannical animal affection. She wanted her constant attention, demanded that she stay close beside her at night, and prevented the poor woman sleeping. She considered her persecutions (the fault of the criminal nurse, ignorant doctors, and her cruel and unnatural father) directed also against the mother. She was insanely jealous of her younger sister, whom she accused of being allied with the father against her. She accused the father of continually deceiving the mother and of having made licentious advances to her, Maria, in her childhood. Her purpose in life, she said, was to protect her mother against the horrible machinations of these two.

The clinical picture makes the Oedipien situation very evident. The eldest of the children, she had a mother fixation and had always hated the father—either primarily because of Oedipien complex or following a regression when he did not return her love. The birth of the sister had brought forth a strong jealousy, reinforcing the tyrannical attachment to the mother. When she did not succeed in leading an independent life, “like a man,” a formidable regression to infantile nonliquidated Oedipien situation took place: a homosexual situation explaining the maternal fixation, the hate of the father, the refusal of the feminine and masculine psychism and genital frigidity. Her delirium of persecution was easily explained by the extension of regressive Oedipien sentiments, and certain morbid reactions, by a prohibition of Oedipien tendencies. The relationship between the hypochondriac stage and the persecution mania was enigmatical; however, the hypochondriac anxiety appeared at the precise

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moment when the Oedipien regression became manifest. The moment this tyrannical need of the mother appeared Maria felt changed in her psychic person, in physical sensibility, and in her sex. “Pressed against her unhappy mother, her eyes full of hate for the father and the sister, foraging even to blood in her vulva, she materialized tragically in the psychopathic attitude which defied all immodesty, all the hypochondriac complex.” This could only be explained thus:”Hypochondriac anxiety in Maria is the result of an affective total castration, with transfer of the sexual function to the nongenital regions of the organism. But this castration was here provoked by the appearance of a narcissistic reaction to the massive regressive reviving of the Oedipien situation, at the same time homosexualizing, defeminizing, and finally (from repression and impossibility of incestuous realization), desexualizing. She projected the fault born of the Oedipien complex onto her father and sister, and held them responsible for this horrible transformation of her coenaesthetic sensibility.

The ambivalent transfer, although the analysis was only outlined, helped to improve the patient; she became more active and gay, but when the doctor tried to unveil prudently the real significance of the Oedipien tendencies the transfer became frankly necessary, although transitively negative. She insulted the author, searching every possible way to injure him.

The author finds this observation interesting from two points of view:

(1)  It is instructive in what concerns the mechanism of sexual psychopathic repression in general in the psychosis. “The case of Maria helps one to understand that such a repression is caused by a formidable and massive regression to infantile sentiments, in particular to Oedipien tendencies.“It would seem that the neoproductivity which bestirs the psychosis consists frequently in a sort of intensification of archaic tendencies thus revived. This tends to admit that the “function of reality”imagined by Janet and Bleuler is before all conditioned by affective laws, especially sexual ones; laws which can be resumed in a biological equilibrium between the exigencies of the individual's affective life and the coercition of the exterior and social milieu in regard to him.

(2)  It permits us to state precisely the mechanism of hypochondriac states which we have seen in this work.

2.   A. Hesnard. Remarks on the Erotization of the Social Relations of Man. —In a previous article, Revue Fr. de Psa., Vol. IV, No. 2, Hesnard discussed the relationship between anxiety and orgasm, and came to the conclusion that in certain neuroses the whole mechanism of repressed libido satisfaction aims to produce anxiety, so that anxiety replaces the orgasm. He finished by asking: To what point is the officer inflicting anxiety due to the need of certain men to cultivate anxiety as eroticism,

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when the infliction of anxiety corresponds to masculine activity and the endurance of anxiety to feminine activity? Does not the erotization of anxiety play an important rôle in art and literature and in religious conceptions? And from these followed the natural question, “To what point are the social relations of man in general in the service of the erotization of anxiety, hence distracted from their real and conscious aim? Consideration of this caused the study of the possibility of a relationship between anxiety and orgasm, and he asked himself in what measure anxiety could represent the infantile form of the orgasm (playing thus a particular and very marked rôle in dreams of anxiety and pollution). He traced a parallel between anxiety and initial enjoyment on the one hand, between suffering and final enjoyment on the other, admitting that the form of human social organization could very well depend on the degree to which it utilized this individual libido abreaction, and he searched to what point society tended further to realize this libido abreaction by the individualization of man on the genital ground. That led him to believe that the orgasm of primitive man would be completely different from the orgasm of civilized man, and that these circumstances must have a great influence not only on man's social organization but equally on his sexual function. All these reflections led him to presume a close relationship between the social and sexual development of an individual and to search to understand the laws of the one by the aid of the other's development. Thus he supposes the existence of an infantile form of social relations corresponding to an infantile form of individual libido satisfaction, and a differentiated form of social relations corresponding to a differentiated form of orgasm, and he tries to understand the laws governing the development of different stages of man's social organization by the aid of libido organization. The knowledge of these laws, he thinks, would show the actual stage of the development of a people or a civilization in a new light. Instead of considering it as the result of a conscious influence of will, we would explain it as coming from affective needs of the collectivity, and this knowledge would make for a better understanding of peoples between themselves and would render accessible to scientific judgment an essential factor. The unconscious of a community can have the same influence on its history as the unconscious of an individual has on his acts. It is not too audacious to hope that the possibility of taking this factor into consideration will render superfluous many political disputes and the reduction of the difficulties in the reciprocal adaptation of different peoples. He closes the article by supposing an adult civilization, where libidinal satisfaction would be obtained not by exterior conflicts and struggle but by internal perfections, social and individual, and accompanied by pacific disposition. He asks the question: What conditions favor/retard the development of a civilization ? and promises to discuss this in a future article.

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(Vol. IV, No. 4)

1.   Anna Freud. Introduction to the Psychoanalysis of Children.

2.   Melanie Klein. The First Stages of the Oedipien Conflict.

3.   Ilse-Charles Odier. Contribution to the Study of the Feminine Super-Ego.

4.   J. Vinchon and S. Nacht. Considerations on the Psychoanalytic Cure of a Homosexual Neurosis.

5.   R. Allendy. Explanation of a Dream.

6.   Marie Bonaparte. Mourning, Necrophobia and Sadism.

7.   Ernest Jones. The Problem of Paul Morphy.

1.   Anna Freud. Introduction to the Psychoanalysis of Children. — Already in English in book form. Chapter II. Technical means in the analysis of children, and Chapter III. The rôle of transference in the analysis of children. In the first chapter (Revue Fr. de Psa., Vol. IV, No. 3) the author explained how she prepared her little patients for analysis. Now she discusses the technical means employed in the analysis proper, and shows how they differ from those used in the analysis of an adult. For instance: It is necessary to establish the history of the illness from the family instead of depending exclusively on information given by the patient. Analysis of dreams is used and usually the child is a good interpreter, since he is nearer the dream than the adult. Much help is also found in the analysis of his designs and day dreams. He does not associate his ideas easily, however, and so the analyst must search for an equivalent factor. Mme. Hug-Hellmuth finds it in studying the child in his proper milieu. Mrs. Klein, in the technique of play. Because in most cases the child's parents are still his real love objects, and because in the analysis of children the analyst's personality must be clearly designed, a true transference is not possible. She says a few words about the different ways and practicability of separating a child from his parents in the case of a serious neurosis and hostile environment.

2.   Melanie Klein. The First Stages of the Oedipien Conflict. — Abstracted in PSYCHOANALYTIC REVIEW, Vol. XIX, No. 4. The author desires especially to say that her conclusions do not contradict Freud; she simply adds her conclusion that the Oedipus complex is manifested earlier, at the end of the first and the beginning of the second year, and its different phases, sado-anal, feminine, genital, penetrate each other freely. The first stages of the conflict, are powerfully dominated by the pregenital phases of development, so that the genital phase, when it begins to be active, is at first hidden, and is only later, between the third and fifth year, clearly recognized. At that age the Oedipus complex and the formation of the super-ego attain their culminating points. But the fact that the Oedipien tendencies are much more precocious than one

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supposes, the pressure of the sentiment of guilt which is exercised from this fact on the pregenital planes, the determining influence thus exercised at an early hour on the Oedipien development on one side and that of the super-ego on the other, and consequently on the formation of character, sexuality, and all the rest of the subject's development; all these things appear to the author to have a great importance.

3.   Ilse-Chaeles-Odier. Contribution to the Study of the Feminine Super-Ego. —Freud has remarked that, contrary to man, woman, in fixing her libido on the first love object, has to change the object. She not only has to abandon her mother; she must become her rival. Now for the baby, the mother is all. Early in life the child has made a food-love equivalence and reclaims the one as lustily as the other. How can, then, the little girl enter into rivalry with this mother of whom she has such a need ? She cannot. She has already learned that it is by disobeying the maternal orders and prohibitions that the good mother is transformed into the wicked mother, and when the Oedipien situation requires that she run the risk of losing the maternal love by her own fault, she hesitates. She tries to conciliate the two positions, but if she cannot, she abandons always the latter before she will the former. Under the pressure of guilt arising from the situation, the libido attached to the Oedipien object regresses to the infantile object and, economically speaking, there is then little libido left for a heterosexual fixation. This, the author thinks, explains why the sexual inhibition is stronger, more resistant, in woman than in man. Since the first manifestations of the sexual instincts at a genital level are of a nature to separate the little girl from her mother, risking to compromise the relation with her, the sexual instinct becomes inhibited. It is not the refusal by the father (since he does not refuse as often as is supposed) nor the interdiction of incest (since woman not having as clear a sense of right can support incest better than man) that causes woman to deny her femininity; behind it all, on the contrary, is the essential danger of losing the mother love. Between man and woman, then, arises always the danger of losing the love of the mother. This sexual prohibition, the author believes, is the nucleus of the feminine super-ego. She gives two cases to support her contention.

Anna was a young girl of twenty-three. She had been analyzed for nine months by Dr. X, but because he was a paternal imago and hence, due to her mother fixation, tabu, she was unable to externalize a conscious positive transference. He sent her to Mme. Odier. Anna was beset with sex, a negative furtive character. She held her mother responsible for her sexual misdemeanors (masturbation, infantile sexual experiences, etc.), since her mother had never understood her and so made a mutual confidence, hence, protection, impossible. Analysis showed this an unconscious protest; in the unconscious the mother permitted no sexuality. Patient showed traces of classic Oedipien attitude, afterwards identification

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with father (he was a feeble, worthless character from whom the mother was separated). Her dreams showed a pronounced attachment and need of the mother, for instance, an actual obsession she had; simply two words—genital organ, alone—associated with an obsessional phantasy of her infancy, “everybody is dead—I can dispense with everything—I remain alone—the contents of all the stores are mine.“The sense is, “all the mothers belong only to me.” A dream showed a passive fixation to the mother which the poor girl had a great difficulty in breaking, despite an occasional revolt. “A man wishes to take me away on a motorcycle” (she was then with Dr. X and he was leaving for a trip the next day), “but I refuse to go and return dutifully, crying, to my mother” Anna's mother was a strong person and Anna was sure she had a penis, in fact, she had seen it. In a short time a positive transference was established; the patient improved in character and became polite and cooperative. Then suddenly she became disagreeable, did not want to finish the treatment, preferred, scoffing at everything, to enjoy life, thought she would return to Dr. X. All this, it developed, because she discovered that her analyst knew a certain Mme. Z. At the beginning of the treatment with Dr. X Anna had been devoted to this Mme. Z; she was a maternal imago until the moment Anna discovered that she was a friend of Dr. X. Then Mme. Z became the wicked mother who shared her love with the father. Anna had given up the father since she did not externalize the transference, but Mme. Z had broken what, at an unconscious level, to Anna seemed a pact, and from then on she hated her. Immediately she discovered Mme. Odier knew this woman, Mme. Odier herself became the wicked mother and Anna wanted to break her part of the bargain. Explication and interpretation given, Anna improved. A heterosexual dream at this time showed that the revolt against the mother had allowed normal desire to come through. Anna interrupted the treatment, but a year later, when she returned, proof of her progress was evident. Her conscious reaction to her analyst's marriage (which had happened in preceding year) was normal; her ego was stronger. The infantile unconscious had a difficult time, however; she projected her jealousy onto analyst's son and husband. Her dreams showed desire for man but strong aggression against him; she preferred man with breasts to man with penis. After a great effort she managed to adjust. She identified herself with analyst as a woman. “The libidinal forces of the woman found thus a normal and ego conforming use, after having been detoured into masculine identification” Anna's character is much improved. She is now able to enjoy her youth, but it is evident that the prohibition against sexuality coming from the mother is still vigorous, for despite a conscious desire on Anna's part to be married, she is still aggressive and inhibited with men.

The second case was Clara, who was also sent to finish her analysis with a woman. She was the wife of an intellectual and herself a talented

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person. She loved and admired her husband, but because she resisted any sex life her conjugal life was stormy. She suffered from vaginismus, numerous and various symptoms of conversion, and difficulties in character. Clara's mother, a dynamic, forceful woman, suffering herself from an unordinary masculine complex, had brought Clara up with the idea that she should never marry or have children, but should have the profession of a man, lawyer, doctor, etc. She had undoubtedly identified herself with Clara and determined to live out in her her masculine desires. The little girl had secretly revolted but had never dared protest. Her father was an artist, completely dominated by his wife. He adored Clara and his love was reciprocated, but always under cover, due to the abnormal jealousy of the mother; for weeks they hardly dared speak to each other. Thus femininity was denied and masculinity enforced upon Clara by the mother. At five a brother was born of whom Clara became very jealous. Her favorite game at this time was to imagine herself a soldier with an umbrella for gun and her small brother and his nurse for enemies; masculine identification had begun. About this time she had St. Vitus dance. Afterwards she showed marked affection for mother. A dream of this period showed desire for heterosexual object but prohibition of it by mother. Clara, evidently attractive, had a great deal of masculine attention which she never dared avow. At seventeen she became engaged, but mother objected and engagement was broken. At twenty-seven she went to Paris to study; her mother, evidently thinking her deeply rooted in her profession, allowed it. Here she met a forceful young man who succeeded, despite the mother's protests, in becoming her husband. Then the trouble began. The maternal super-ego would not allow Clara any sexuality. She neglected her appearance, even tried to make herself ugly, and insisted she was inferior to all women. She tried to arrange to have her husband abandon her. After some months of analysis she was not always frigid, but when she enjoyed her husband it was necessary the next day to punish herself by creating scenes with him, making him relive the infantile situation with the mother. Thus, if her ego dared to brave her mother, her super-ego continued to be master in the unconscious. But the ego, feeble as it was, protested, causing her disequilibrium and troubles. “The last phase of the analysis brought a dream of rebirth; Clara had succeeded in introjecting the new mother.”

Mme. Odier concludes that the genital object at the ego level will remain the infantile object at the Id level. Woman will search in the husband, the mother, and the fixation on him will not necessarily have a heterosexual character. There is always present the intense need to be reconciled with the mother. The author adds that while her conclusions are seen as across a magnifying glass, since they are drawn from patients, she can affirm that she has found the identical situation in women living a normal sex life. She thinks we are face to face with something as irreducible, as general, as fatal as the Oedipus complex. Analysis of a

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woman by a woman allows her to modify her super-ego by a new introjection.

4.   J. Vinchon and S. Nacht. Considerations on the Psychoanalytic Cure of a Homosexual Neurosis. —The authors distinguish three kinds of homosexuality: organic, psychic perverse, accompanied by no interior trouble or suffering; psychic, neurotic, accompanied by many psychic difficulties apparently independent of sexual trouble, and also suffering caused by the inversion. It is of this last kfnd of homosexuality that this article treats. The patient, Pierre, was a young man of twenty-six. Nothing in his exterior aspect or manner of speaking suggested femininity. He talked of his sexual aberration with ease, perhaps with a certain satisfaction. He said he submitted to treatment only because he found himself in a desperate situation. He wished to be relieved only of the obsessional aspect of his perversion which made it impossible for him to work or play satisfactorily. Otherwise he was satisfied with his condition; women did not interest him. At the age of nine or ten one of the older boys in the boarding school where he was had taught him masturbation. From then until the age of sixteen he practiced solitary or reciprocal masturbation with his school mates. At sixteen he lost his faith and had thoughts of suicide. Then for two years he lived at home. Due to family environment and counsels of an intelligent Jesuit priest, there was a marked amelioration in his condition. During his last year in college he became conscious of the fact that women did not interest him. Terrified, he read various books on pederasty, consulted his confessor, a doctor, went out with a prostitute (who unfortunately was an horrible old creature and disgusted him), and finally, in revolt against God and the church, decided to enjoy his vice without remorse, intending ultimately to kill himself. From then until twenty he took advantage of every opportunity that presented itself. He did his military service in Morocco and learned from the Indians “the complete act against nature.” Afterwards he lived in Tunis for three years and there ran the gamut of all the perversions. His vice and attendant carelessness caused him to fail in business in Tunis, and he returned to France resolved either to go to Canada, to kill himself, or to try treatment. Very shortly afterwards the authors met him for the first time. Pierre was the second son in a family of three boys and a girl. All the other children seemed perfectly normal and there was no hereditary taint in the family. The father was a cold, religious Catholic about sixty; he had no personality, a pronounced rigid morality and a great need to assert himself. Pierre had suffered from his father's stupid authoritative manner all his life, and detested him. His mother was a kind, sweet woman, more intelligent than her husband, but because of Oedipus complex and Pierre's masochism her relations with her son were strained and tumultuous.

The analysis showed a marked anal fixation—Pierre, as infant, had

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loved to have his mother or nurse wipe him after defecation. He loved to have his mother kiss his buttock at night when she tucked him into bed—and ensuing masochism. At eight he was still soiling his trousers and exposing them, advising the world of his sin so as to receive punishment. The aim of all the disputes with his mother was to have her beat him. All his life was marked by the need for suffering. He failed in everything, school, business, etc. It seemed necessary for him to humiliate himself and be beaten. His masochism was also fed by his great feeling of guilt, due to aggressiveness toward father—as a small child he had prayed for his death. He allowed himself to be dominated by this authoritative father in order to satisfy the sense of guilt. This conflict with the father originated, as we might expect, in the Oedipien situation. Pierre was torn with tenderness for his mother. He even remembered the impression in childhood of a sensual dash for her. But rivalry and struggle with, suppression of, this domineering father was impossible for him, and so his mother became tabu, and subsequently all women, since in the unconscious they stood for his mother.

It is seen, then, that the complexes at the base of Pierre's morbid neurotic conduct were revolt against the father and need of suffering. He revolted against all life because he revolted against the father. He was masochistic because it was necessary in suffering to satisfy his need of unconscious guilt due to infantile conflicts. For similar reasons Pierre's sexuality could not express itself freely, and so by regressing it found expression and satisfaction in masochism and homosexuality.

The treatment has been very successful; Pierre managed to desexu-alize his mother, subsequently improving his relations with his parents and losing his sense of guilt and need for punishment. He has a good position where he is appreciated, and a mistress with whom he has normal sexual relations. In the past year he had had two or three relapses, but the last one he did not enjoy, and he feels sure that in the future he will have no more.

5.   R. Allendy. Explanation of a Dream. —Detailed, nonabstract-able.

6.   Marie Bonaparte. Mourning, Necrophobia, and Sadism. —The love of E. A. Poe for mourning (dressed always in black—never, never more of poem—symbolism of Ulalume in which the poet endeavors to go toward normal love but is impeded by the tomb of his loved one), the author says was due to the Oedipus complex. The poet's mother, a frail tubercular, died when he was three, and thereafter, both in his poems (Bernice, Madelaine, Rowena, frail, cadaverous looking women) and in his life (Mme. Stanard, tubercular, died at thirty; Virginia Clem, frail, backward girl, tubercular, died young; Marie Louise Shew, Frances Osgood, both tubercular), it was this type of woman he picked to adore. In all his infidelity he was faithful to his first love. Virginia Clem, who

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resembled her the most, was his most lasting attachment, and never did he love her more than when she began to cough and spit blood. (This close resemblance, however, was too much for his super-ego, and we find him, when his wife is dying, fleeing his heterosexuality by drinking with men in the taverns.) The few times he tried to break from his complex by picking normal, healthy women, i.e., Elenora Royster, Annie Richmond, the interdiction against all sexuality which he carried in him (his relations with his wife, Virginia Clem, who was only thirteen when he married her, were always platonic), pushed him to drinking heavily, thus separating him from his love and keeping him faithful to his mother. A witness to this loyalty, this fleeing the mother only to find her in the object fled to, is found in his stories, Morella, Ligeia, Elenora. In each story the lover is deeply in love with an unusual woman in some distant place; he loves her as passionately as air, the conscious prototype of the poet's infantile love for his mother. Eventually, however, the finger of destiny touches the woman, she dies of a lingering illness, and the inconsolable lover swears himself to eternal mourning.

E. A. Poe was a case of sublimated necrophobia. Mme. Bonaparte reports the case of two men, Bertrand and Ardisson, perverse psychopaths, in whom the state of death, the corpse, became the object of love. In both cases the patients dug up the dead and had sexual relations with them. Their histories give little explanatory information, however. She quotes from Ernest Jones' article on “Nightmare and the Superstitions of the Middle Ages,” in which he distinguishes two kinds of necrophobia: (1) Extension of love in death, frenetic opposition against being separated from loved one. Examples: Heroditus, King Herod, who continued to have sexual relations with their wives after they were dead. (2) When the person seeks satisfaction in any corpse, probably the most extreme perversion of the love instinct. E. A. Poe belonged to the first type, the other two cases to the latter. The author suggests the difference between these two kinds of necrophobia may be due to quantitative elements and a qualitative element which is probably some happening of infancy. She touches here also on criminal sadism.

The profound relationship and also the variation existing between necrophobia and sadism appears again in the profound affinity uniting Baudelaire and his idol, Poe. The sexuality of Baudelaire was profoundly sadistic and Poe's, as we have said, necrophobic. Could this be, perhaps, suggests the author, because in the latter case the father had already killed the mother, leaving the poet only the joy of the mother already killed, while with Baudelaire the adored and hated mother, married to Aupick, had yet to be killed?

7.   Ernest Jones. The Problem of Paul Morphy. —Appeared Int. Jl. Psa.

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Article Citation

Jones, M.V. (1935). Revue Française de Psychanalyse. Psychoanal. Rev., 22(3):314-333

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